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Research Papers: Lubricants

Tribological Improvements of Dispersed Nanodiamond Additives in Lubricating Mineral Oil

[+] Author and Article Information
Matthew Marko

Navy Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division,
JB-MDL, Highway 547,
Lakehurst, NJ 08733
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Columbia University,
500 W 120 Street,
New York, NY 10027
e-mail: matthew.marko@navy.mil

Jonathan Kyle

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Columbia University,
500 W 120 Street,
New York, NY 10027
e-mail: jpk2128@columbia.edu

Blake Branson

sp3 Nanotech, LLC,
1448 Halsey Way, Suite 110,
Carrollton, TX 75007
e-mail: blake_branson@sp3nanotech.com

Elon Terrell

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Columbia University,
500 W 120 Street,
New York, NY 10027
e-mail: eterrell@columbia.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received April 8, 2014; final manuscript received July 21, 2014; published online October 21, 2014. Assoc. Editor: George K. Nikas.

This work is in part a work of the U.S. Government. ASME disclaims all interest in the U.S. Government's Contributions.

J. Tribol 137(1), 011802 (Oct 21, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: TRIB-14-1077; doi: 10.1115/1.4028554 History: Received April 08, 2014; Revised July 21, 2014

An effort was conducted to study and characterize the effects of nanodiamond particles as an additive to lubricating mineral oil. The tests were run for varying concentrations ranging from pure mineral oil to 0.01% weight-concentration of nanodiamonds. The friction was measured throughout the tests, and the resulting wear was measured with optical profilometry. It was observed that both the average friction coefficient and the wear would decrease proportionally to the concentration of nanodiamond particles, and the 0.01% nanodiamond weight concentration was observed to improve the tribological performance of lubricating mineral oil. Chemical analysis of contacting surfaces showed no significant distinction from the nanodiamond mixture versus the pure mineral oil, while particle size analysis demonstrated that the nanoparticles themselves remained intact (i.e., no breakup) in the contact interface. This helps to conclude that a mechanical and not a chemical effect of the nanodiamond particles helped to protect the metallic surface from wear and improve the lubricating ability of the mineral oil.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

TEM images of 60 nm slices of nanocomposites with (a) UDD filler and (b) nanodiamond filler. (c) TEM image of 40 nm microtome of the vinyl ester composite filled with 3.5% weight concentration nanodiamond–vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS).

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Fig. 2

DLS results for the nanodiamond particle diameter, both before and after a four-ball test. The DLS measurement determined both the deflection angle as well as the spectral absorption for a light propagating through the nanodiamond solution.

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Fig. 3

Experimental measurements of viscosity as a function of temperature, for (a) mineral oil and (b) 0.01% nanodiamond weight concentration

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Fig. 4

Time resolved measured COF throughout four-ball test, lubricated with (a) mineral oil, (b) mineral oil with 0.0025% nanodiamond weight concentration, and (c) mineral oil with 0.01% nanodiamond weight concentration. Repeat tests are shown.

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Fig. 5

Experimentally measured COF as a function of nanodiamond weight concentration

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Fig. 6

FTIR spectra of (a) straight nanodiamond as received from the manufacturer, (b) surface-functionalized nanodiamond during additive synthesis, (c) mineral oil without nanodiamond additive after four-ball testing, and (d) mineral oil containing dispersed nanodiamond particles after four-ball testing

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Fig. 7

Calculated peak from high-analysis study near the excitation energy of carbon. Study includes both the wear scar after a mineral oil four-ball test (bottom) and the wear scar after the nanodiamond four-ball test (top). The peaks were solved with the Shirley background function.

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Fig. 8

Results of the Zygo profile-meter after a 0.01% weight concentration nanodiamond four-ball test, including: (a) the microscopic image of the wear scar, and (b) the 3D measured profile; X and Y labels are in mm, grayscale bar represents micrometers of wear

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Fig. 9

Measured profiles of wear scars, for (a) 0.01% nanodiamond weight concentration, (b) 0.0025% nanodiamond weight concentration, and (c) mineral oil

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Fig. 10

Measured wear volume as a function of nanodiamond weight concentration

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Fig. 11

RMS surface roughness of wear scars. Clear bars represent average roughness, whereas error bars represent standard deviation of roughness, as a function of nanodiamond weight concentration.

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