Carbon fabric/phenolic composites modified with potassium titanate whisker (PTW) were prepared by a dip-coating and hot-press molding technique, and the tribological properties of the resulting composites were investigated systematically using a ring-on-block arrangement under different sliding conditions. Experimental results showed that the optimal PTW significantly decreased the wear-rate. The worn surfaces of the composites and the transfer film formed on the counterpart steel ring were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to reveal the wear mechanisms. The transfer films formed on the counterpart surfaces made contributions to the improvement of the tribological behavior of the carbon fabric composites. The friction and wear of the filled carbon fabric composites was significantly dependent on the sliding conditions. It is observed that the wear-rate increased with increasing applied load and sliding speeds.