0
Research Papers: Friction & Wear

Comparisons of Tribological Properties of Ti(C,N)/SiC in Water and Seawater

[+] Author and Article Information
Wei Huang

College of Mechanical
and Electrical Engineering,
Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Precision
and Micro-Manufacturing Technology,
Nanjing 210016, China

Haiye Liu

College of Mechanical
and Electrical Engineering,
Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics,
Nanjing 210016, China

Xiaolei Wang

College of Mechanical
and Electrical Engineering,
Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Precision
and Micro-Manufacturing Technology,
Nanjing 210016, China
e-mails: wxl@nuaa.edu.cn; xlei_wang@yahoo.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received July 14, 2014; final manuscript received October 23, 2014; published online December 12, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Dae-Eun Kim.

J. Tribol 137(2), 021603 (Apr 01, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: TRIB-14-1162; doi: 10.1115/1.4028981 History: Received July 14, 2014; Revised October 23, 2014; Online December 12, 2014

Ti(C,N)-based cermets offer good high temperature strength, perfect chemical stability, excellent wear resistance, and relatively better machinability. In the present work, the tribological behaviors of Ti(C,N)/SiC sliding pairs lubricated in water and seawater were evaluated using a ball-on-disk tribometer. The experimental results show that a relatively low friction coefficient (about 0.025) can be obtained when lubricated with artificial seawater at the sliding speed of 200 mm/s, while the friction coefficient is about 0.2 in purified water. The wear surface profiles and the lubricants collected after running-in process for the high and low friction conditions were compared. In addition, the effects of salt molar concentration of the lubricant on the Ti(C,N)/SiC friction properties were investigated. It was found that the smooth and flat surface is the premise to gain the low friction. At the same time, the proper concentration of silica colloid, which is affected by the salt ions, is also an essential one. Moreover, the high sliding speed (200 mm/s) is beneficial to achieve low friction.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

“World Demand for Lubricants to Approach 42 Million Metric Tons in 2015.” Available at: http://www.freedoniagroup.com/FreedoniaPressRelease/World-Demand-for-Lubricants-to-Approach-42-Million-Metric-Tons-in-2015.html
Tomizawa, H., and Fischer, T. E., 1987, “Friction and Wear of Silicon Nitride and Silicon Carbide in Water: Hydrodynamic Lubrication at Low Sliding Speed Obtained by Tribochemical Wear,” ASLE Trans., 30(1), pp. 41–46. [CrossRef]
Xu, J., Kato, K., and Hirayama, T., 1997, “The Transition of Wear Mode During the Running-in Process of Silicon Nitride Sliding in Water,” Wear, 205(1–3), pp. 55–63. [CrossRef]
Wong, H., Umehara, N., and Kato, K., 1998, “The Effect of Surface Roughness on Friction of Ceramics Sliding in Water,” Wear, 218(2), pp. 237–243. [CrossRef]
Wong, H., Umehara, N., and Kato, K., 1998, “Frictional Characteristics of Ceramics Under Water-Lubricated Conditions,” Tribol. Lett., 5(4), pp. 303–308. [CrossRef]
Xu, J., and Kato, K., 2000, “Formation of Tribochemical Layer of Ceramics Sliding in Water and Its Role for Low Friction,” Wear, 245(1–2), pp. 61–75. [CrossRef]
Chen, M., Kato, K., and Adachi, K., 2001, “The Difference in Running-in Period and Friction Coefficient Between Self-Mated Si3N4 and SiC Under Water Lubrication,” Tribol. Lett., 11(1), pp. 23–28. [CrossRef]
Gates, R. S., and Hsu, S. M., 2004, “Tribochemistry Between Water and Si3N4 and SiC: Induction Time Analysis,” Tribol. Lett., 17(3), pp. 399–407. [CrossRef]
Jahanmir, S., Ozmen, Y., and Ives, L. K., 2004, “Water Lubrication of Silicon Nitride in Sliding,” Tribol. Lett., 17(3), pp. 409–417. [CrossRef]
Huang, W., Xu, Y., Zheng, Y., and Wang, X., 2011, “The Tribological Performance of Ti(C,N)-Based Cermet Sliding Against Si3N4 in Water,” Wear, 270(9–10), pp. 682–687. [CrossRef]
Wang, X., Adachi, K., Otsuka, K., and Kato, K., 2006, “Optimization of the Surface Texture for Silicon Carbide Sliding in Water,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 253(3), pp. 1282–1286. [CrossRef]
Chen, M., Kato, K., and Adachi, K., 2001, “Friction and Wear of Self-Mated SiC and Si3N4 Sliding in Water,” Wear, 250(1–12), pp. 246–255. [CrossRef]
Woydt, M., and Schwenzien, J., 1993, “Dry and Water-Lubricated Slip-Rolling of Si3N4- and SiC-Based Ceramics,” Tribol. Int., 26(3), pp. 165–173. [CrossRef]
Andersson, P., and Lintula, P., 1994, “Load-Carrying Capability of Water-Lubricated Ceramic Journal Bearings,” Tribol. Int., 27(5), pp. 315–321. [CrossRef]
Ettmayer, P., Kolaska, H., Lengauer, W., and Dreyert, K., 1995, “Ti(C,N) Cermets-Metallurgy and Properties,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 13(6), pp. 343–351. [CrossRef]
Cardinal, S., Malchère, A., Garnier, V., and Fantozzi, G., 2009, “Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TiC-TiN Based Cermets for Tools Application,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 27(3), pp. 521–527. [CrossRef]
Córdoba, J. M., Sánchez-López, J. C., Avilés, M. A., Alcalá, M. D., and Gotor, F. J., 2009, “Properties of Ti(C,N) Cermets Synthesized by Mechanically Induced Self-Sustaining Reaction,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 29(6), pp. 1173–1182. [CrossRef]
Chavanes, A., Pauty, E., and Woydt, M., 2004, “Titanium-Molybdenum Carbonitride as Light-Weight and Wear Resistant Monolithic Material,” Wear, 256(7–8), pp. 647–656. [CrossRef]
Jeon, E. T., Joardar, J., and Kang, S., 2002, “Microstructure and Tribo-Mechanical Properties of Ultrafine Ti(CN) Cermets,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 20(3), pp. 207–211. [CrossRef]
Kumar, B. V. M., Basu, B., Vizintin, J., and Kalin, M., 2011, “Tribochemistry in Sliding Wear of TiCN-Ni-Based Cermets,” J. Mater. Res., 23(5), pp. 1214–1227. [CrossRef]
Wang, Q., Zhou, F., Zhou, Z., Yang, Y., Yan, C., Wang, C., Zhang, W., Li, L. K.-Y., Bello, I., and Lee, S.-T., 2012, “Influence of Carbon Content on the Microstructure and Tribological Properties of TiN(C) Coatings in Water Lubrication,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 206(18), pp. 3777–3787. [CrossRef]
Zhao, X., Liu, J., Zhu, B., Luo, Z., and Miao, H., 1997, “Effects of Lubricants on Friction and Wear of Ti(CN)/1045 Steel Sliding Pairs,” Tribol. Int., 30(3), pp. 177–182. [CrossRef]
Liu, N., Wang, J., Chen, B., and Yan, F., 2013, “Tribochemical Aspects of Silicon Nitride Ceramic Sliding Against Stainless Steel Under the Lubrication of Seawater,” Tribol. Int., 61, pp. 205–213. [CrossRef]
Einstein, A., 1905, Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian Movement, Dover Publication, NY.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The image of SiC ball and Ti(C,N) disk

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The scheme of experimental apparatus

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The variation of friction curves at the normal load of 5 N in purified water

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

The variation of friction curves at the normal load of 5 N in seawater

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

3D and sectional morphologies of wear tracks on Ti(C,N) surfaces at sliding speed of 200 mm/s; (a) and (b) with purified water; (c) and (d) with seawater

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

SEM images of wear tracks on Ti(C,N) disks after sliding against SiC for 36 h in various conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

(a) and (b) SEM images of wear scar on SiC balls after sliding against Ti(C,N) for 36 h in various conditions and (c) EDS of wear particles on wear scar in seawater

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The image of lubricant after 36 h running-in process. (a) purified water worked at 200 mm/s and (b) seawater worked at 200 mm/s.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

TEM images and electron diffraction pattern of colloid particles formed in various conditions. (a) TEM image of particles in Fig. 8(a); (b) electron diffraction pattern of particles in Fig. 8(a); (c) TEM image of particles in Fig. 8(b); and (d) electron diffraction pattern of particles in Fig. 8(b).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

The friction test of Ti(C,N)/SiC tribo-pair in seawater followed by purified water

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

The relation between the NaCl concentrations and friction coefficients

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Five lubricants collected after 36 h friction test and let them sit for 12 h

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In