Research Papers: Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

Modeling Dark and White Layer Formation on Elastohydrodynamically Lubricated Steel Surfaces by Thermomechanical Indentation or Abrasion by Metallic Particles

[+] Author and Article Information
George K. Nikas

KADMOS Engineering Ltd.,
3 Princes Mews,
Hounslow TW3 3RF, UK
e-mail: gnikas@teemail.gr

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received December 24, 2014; final manuscript received February 6, 2015; published online April 15, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Sinan Muftu.

J. Tribol 137(3), 031504 (Jul 01, 2015) (20 pages) Paper No: TRIB-14-1315; doi: 10.1115/1.4029944 History: Received December 24, 2014; Revised February 06, 2015; Online April 15, 2015

In a series of publications, the author has shown that the passage of ductile microparticles through elastohydrodynamic (EHD) contacts results in frictional heating that can greatly affect surface damage. The thermoviscoplastic numerical model built for those studies is extended in the present article. A more rigorous analysis of dynamic (strain-rate) effects is performed and a new element of heating is introduced, namely, that owed to plastic work of the surfaces being indented. The model is then quantitatively validated against experimental data on soft and hard particles extruded in rolling and rolling–sliding contacts. It is also compared to past numerical predictions of the author. Following its validation, the model is further expanded to predict the formation of dark and white tribochemical layers of overtempered and untempered martensite, respectively, on steel surfaces, caused by the particle-induced frictional heating. Such layers are well-known in machining processes of hardened steels as being the result of phase transformations and play a critical role in contact fatigue. The debris model in this article is used to predict the layer thickness and relative hardness for a variety of operating conditions. Layers of micrometric thickness are typically found and graphic examples are presented, linking their location to that of debris dents. A parametric study examines the role of particle size and hardness, Coulomb friction coefficient, and contact rolling velocity on dark and white layer thickness and relative hardness. The layers are zones of great inhomogeneity and thermomechanical anisotropy, increasing the risk of spalling by delamination as they are potential sources of crack initiation, particularly in sliding contacts. However, white layers in particular may actually be beneficial to contact fatigue in rolling contacts because of their substantially increased hardness. The conclusion of the study is that debris-driven surface indentation and abrasion should no longer be viewed from a purely mechanistic or geometrical perspective but has to consider the tribochemical or microstructural-modification factor for the correct evaluation of the remaining useful life of a dented or abraded contact.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Nikas, G. K., 2010, “A State-of-the-Art Review on the Effects of Particulate Contamination and Related Topics in Machine-Element Contacts,” J. Eng. Tribol., 224(5), pp. 453–479.
Nikas, G. K., 2009, “Review of Studies on the Detrimental Effects of Solid Contaminants in Lubricated Machine Element Contacts,” Reliability Engineering Advances, G. I.Hayworth, ed., Nova Science Publishers, New York, pp. 1–44.
Kjer, T., 1981, “Particles in New Motor Oils,” Wear, 69(3), pp. 395–396. [CrossRef]
Leng, J. A., and Davies, J. E., 1988, “Ferrographic Examination of Unused Lubricants for Diesel Engines,” Wear, 122(1), pp. 115–119. [CrossRef]
Dwyer-Joyce, R. S., 2004, “The Life Cycle of a Debris Particle,” Proceedings of the 31st Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Leeds, UK. Sept. 7–10, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Vol. 48, pp. 681–690.
Jones, M. H., 1983, “Wear Debris Associated With Diesel Engine Operation,” Wear, 90(1), pp. 75–88. [CrossRef]
Stachowiak, G. W., Kirk, T. B., and Stachowiak, G. B., 1991, “Ferrography and Fractal Analysis of Contamination Particles in Unused Lubricating Oils,” Tribol. Int., 24(6), pp. 329–334. [CrossRef]
Roylance, B. J., and Hunt, T. M., 1999, Wear Debris Analysis, Coxmoor Publishing Company, Oxford.
Roylance, B. J., Williams, J. A., and Dwyer-Joyce, R., 2000, “Wear Debris and Associated Wear Phenomena—Fundamental Research and Practice,” J. Eng. Tribol., 214(1), pp. 79–105.
Glaeser, W. A., 2001, “Wear Debris Classification,” Modern Tribology Handbook, B.Bhushan, ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 301–315.
Williams, J. A., 2005, “Wear and Wear Particles—Some Fundamentals,” Tribol. Int., 38(10), pp. 863–870. [CrossRef]
Hirano, F., and Yamamoto, S., 1959, “Four-Ball Test on Lubricating Oils Containing Solid Particles,” Wear, 2(5), pp. 349–363. [CrossRef]
Fitzsimmons, B., and Clevenger, H. D., 1977, “Contaminated Lubricants and Tapered Roller Bearing Wear,” ASLE Trans., 20(2), pp. 97–107. [CrossRef]
Fodor, J., 1979, “Improving Utilisation of Potential I.C. Engine Life by Filtration,” Tribol. Int., 12(3), pp. 127–129. [CrossRef]
Ronen, A., Malkin, S., and Loewy, K., 1980, “Wear of Dynamically Loaded Hydrodynamic Bearings by Contaminant Particles,” ASME J. Lubr. Technol., 102(4), pp. 452–458. [CrossRef]
Ronen, A., and Malkin, S., 1981, “Wear Mechanism of Statically Loaded Hydrodynamic Bearings by Contaminant Abrasive Particles,” Wear, 68(3), pp. 371–389. [CrossRef]
Ronen, A., and Malkin, S., 1983, “Investigation of Friction and Wear of Dynamically Loaded Hydrodynamic Bearings With Abrasive Contaminants,” ASME J. Lubr. Technol., 105(4), pp. 559–569. [CrossRef]
Khorshid, E. A., and Nawwar, A. M., 1991, “A Review of the Effect of Sand Dust and Filtration on Automobile Engine Wear,” Wear, 141(2), pp. 349–371. [CrossRef]
Rabinowicz, E., and Mutis, A., “Effect of Abrasive Particle Size on Wear,” Wear, 1965, 8(5), pp. 381–390. [CrossRef]
Larsen-Badse, J., 1968, “Influence of Grit Size on the Groove Formation During Sliding Abrasion,” Wear, 11(3), pp. 213–222. [CrossRef]
Larsen-Badse, J., 1968, “Influence of Grit Diameter and Specimen Size on Wear During Sliding Abrasion,” Wear, 12(1), pp. 35–53. [CrossRef]
Richardson, R. C. D., 1968, “The Wear of Metals by Relatively Soft Abrasives,” Wear, 11(4), pp. 245–275. [CrossRef]
Xuan, J. L., Hong, I. T., and Fitch, E. C., 1989, “Hardness Effect on Three-Body Abrasive Wear Under Fluid Film Lubrication,” ASME J. Tribol., 111(1), pp. 35–40. [CrossRef]
Williams, J. A., and Hyncica, A. M., 1992, “Abrasive Wear in Lubricated Contacts,” J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys., 25(1A), pp. 81–90. [CrossRef]
Dwyer-Joyce, R. S., Sayles, R. S., and Ioannides, E., 1994, “An Investigation Into the Mechanisms of Closed Three-Body Abrasive Wear,” Wear, 175(1–2), pp. 133–142. [CrossRef]
Hamilton, R. W., Sayles, R. S., and Ioannides, E., 1997, “Wear Due to Debris Particles in Rolling Bearing Contacts,” Proceedings of the 24th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, London, Sept. 4–6, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Vol. 34, pp. 87–93.
Dwyer-Joyce, R. S., 1999, “Predicting the Abrasive Wear of Ball Bearings by Lubricant Debris,” Wear, 233–235, pp. 692–701. [CrossRef]
Grieve, D. G., Dwyer-Joyce, R. S., and Beynon, J. H., 2001, “Abrasive Wear of Railway Track by Solid Contaminants,” J. Rail Rapid Transit, 215(3), pp. 193–205. [CrossRef]
Nilsson, R., Dwyer-Joyce, R. S., and Olofsson, U., 2006, “Abrasive Wear of Rolling Bearings by Lubricant Borne Particles,” J. Eng. Tribol., 220(5), pp. 429–439.
Green, D. A., and Lewis, R., 2008, “The Effects of Soot-Contaminated Engine Oil on Wear and Friction: A Review,” J. Auto. Engin., 222(9), pp. 1669–1689. [CrossRef]
Wan, G. T. Y., and Spikes, H. A., 1987, “The Behavior of Suspended Solid Particles in Rolling and Sliding Elastohydrodynamic Contacts,” Tribol. Trans., 31(1), pp. 12–21. [CrossRef]
Enthoven, J. C., and Spikes, H. A., 1994, “Visual Observation of the Process of Scuffing,” Proceedings of the 21st Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Leeds, UK. September 6–9, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Vol. 30, pp. 487–494.
Nikas, G. K., Sayles, R. S., and Ioannides, E., 1998, “Effects of Debris Particles in Sliding/Rolling Elastohydrodynamic Contacts,” J. Eng. Tribol., 212(5), pp. 333–343.
Nikas, G. K., 1999, “Theoretical Modelling of the Entrainment and Thermomechanical Effects of Contamination Particles in Elastohydrodynamic Contacts,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London.
Sato, H., Tokuoka, N., Yamamoto, H., and Sasaki, M., 1999, “Study of Wear Mechanism by Soot Contaminated in Engine Oil,” SAE Paper No. 1999-01-3573.
Nikas, G. K., 2002, “Particle Entrainment in Elastohydrodynamic Point Contacts and Related Risks of Oil Starvation and Surface Indentation,” ASME J. Tribol., 124(3), pp. 461–467. [CrossRef]
Green, D. A., Lewis, R., and Dwyer-Joyce, R. S., 2006, “The Wear Effects and Mechanisms of Soot Contaminated Automotive Lubricants,” J. Eng. Tribol., 220(3), pp. 159–169.
Miettinen, J., and Andersson, P., 2000, “Acoustic Emission of Rolling Bearings Lubricated With Contaminated Grease,” Tribol. Int., 33(11), pp. 777–787. [CrossRef]
Peng, Z., Kessissoglou, N. J., and Cox, M., 2005, “A Study of the Effect of Contaminant Particles in Lubricants Using Wear Debris and Vibration Condition Monitoring Techniques,” Wear, 258(11–12), pp. 1651–1662. [CrossRef]
Akagaki, T., Nakamura, M., Monzen, T., and Kawabata, M., 2006, “Analysis of the Behaviour of Rolling Bearings in Contaminated Oil Using Some Condition Monitoring Techniques,” J. Eng. Tribol., 220(5), pp. 447–453.
Sari, M. R., Haiahem, A., and Flamand, L., 2007, “Effect of Lubricant Contamination on Gear Wear,” Tribol. Lett., 27(1), pp. 119–126. [CrossRef]
Masuko, M., Suzuki, A., and Ueno, T., 2006, “Influence of Physical and Chemical Contaminants on the Antiwear Performance of Model Automotive Engine Oil,” J. Eng. Tribol., 220(5), pp. 455–462.
Yamaguchi, E. S., Untermann, M., Roby, S. H., Ryason, P. R., and Yeh, S. W., 2006, “Soot Wear in Diesel Engines,” J. Eng. Tribol., 220(5), pp. 463–469.
Booth, J. E., Nelson, K. D., Harvey, T. J., Wood, R. J. K., Wang, L., Powrie, H. E. G., and Martinez, J. G., 2006, “The Feasibility of Using Electrostatic Monitoring to Identify Diesel Lubricant Additives and Soot Contamination Interactions by Factorial Analysis,” Tribol. Int., 39(12), pp. 1564–1575. [CrossRef]
Moon, M., 2007, “How Clean are Your Lubricants?,” Trends Food Sci. Technol., 18 (Suppl. 1), pp. S74–S88. [CrossRef]
Mizuhara, K., Tomimoto, M., and Yamamoto, T., 2000, “Effect of Particles on Lubricated Friction,” Tribol. Trans., 43(1), pp. 51–56. [CrossRef]
Tomimoto, M., Mizuhara, K., and Yamamoto, T., 2002, “Effect of Particles on Lubricated Friction—Theoretical Analysis of Friction Caused by Particles in Journal Bearing,” Tribol. Trans., 45(1), pp. 47–54. [CrossRef]
Roach, A. E., 1951, “Performance of Oil-Film Bearings With Abrasive Containing Lubrication,” ASME Trans., 73, pp. 677–686.
Rylander, H. G., 1952, “Effects of Solid Inclusions in Sleeve-Bearing Oil Supply,” Mech. Eng., 74, pp. 963–966.
Broeder, J. J., and Heijnekamp, J. W., 1965–1966, “Abrasive Wear of Journal Bearings by Particles in the Oil,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 180(11), pp. 21–31.
Sari, M. R., Ville, F., Haiahem, A., and Flamand, L., 2010, “Effect of Lubricant Contamination on Friction and Wear in an EHL Sliding Contact,” Mechanika, 82(2), pp. 43–49.
Handschuh, R. F., and Krantz, T. L., 2010, “Engagement of Metal Debris Into a Gear Mesh,” The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC, Report No. NASA/TM 2010-216759.
Needelman, W. M., and Zaretsky, E. V., 1991, “Quantifying Oil Filtration Effects on Bearing Life,” The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC, Report No. NASA TM 104350.
Okamoto, J., Fujita, K., and Toshioka, T., 1972, “Effects of Solid Particles in Oil on the Life of Ball Bearings,” J. Mech. Eng. Lab. (Tokyo), 26(5), pp. 228–238 (NASA Technical Translation, NASA TT F-15, 653, June 1974).
Dalal, H., Cotellesse, G., Morrison, F., and Ninos, N., 1974, “Progression of Surface Damage in Rolling Contact Fatigue,” SKF Industries Inc., King of Prussia PA Research Lab, Report No. SKF-AL74TO02.
Tallian, T. E., 1976, “Prediction of Rolling Contact Fatigue Life in Contaminated Lubricant: Part II—Experimental,” ASME J. Lubr. Technol., 98(3), pp. 384–392. [CrossRef]
Loewenthal, S. H., and Moyer, D. W., 1979, “Filtration Effects on Ball Bearing Life and Condition in a Contaminated Lubricant,” J. Lubr. Technol., 101(2), pp. 171–176. [CrossRef]
Bhachu, R. S., 1980, “The Influence of Debris on Rolling Fatigue Life,” Ph.D. thesis, University of London, London.
Sayles, R. S., and Macpherson, P. B., 1982, “The Influence of Wear Debris on Rolling Contact Fatigue,” Rolling Contact Fatigue Testing in Bearing Steels, ASTM STP 771, Philadelphia, pp. 255–275.
Bhachu, R., Sayles, R. S., and Macpherson, P. B., 1981, “The Influence of Filtration on Rolling Element Bearing Life,” Innovation for Maintenance Technology Improvements, T. R.Shives, and W. A.Willard, eds., The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC, pp. 326–347.
Loewenthal, S. H., Moyer, D. W., and Needelman, W. M., 1982, “Effects of Ultra-Clean and Centrifugal Filtration on Rolling-Element Bearing Life,” J. Lubr. Technol., 104(3), pp. 283–291. [CrossRef]
Webster, M. N., Ioannides, E., and Sayles, R. S., 1985, “The Effect of Topographical Defects on the Contact Stress and Fatigue Life in Rolling Element Bearings,” Proceedings of the 12th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Lyon, France, Sept. 3–6, Butterworth, London, pp. 207–221.
Hamer, J. C., Lubrecht, A. A., Ioannides, E., and Sayles, R. S., 1988, “Surface Damage on Rolling Elements and Its Subsequent Effects on Performance and Life,” Proceedings of the 15th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Leeds, UK. Sept. 6–9, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Elsevier Tribology and Interface Engineering Series, 14, pp. 189–197.
Dwyer-Joyce, R. S., Hamer, J. C., Sayles, R. S., and Ioannides, E., 1991, “Lubricant Screening for Debris Effects to Improve Fatigue and Wear Life,” Proceedings of the 18th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Lyon, France, Sept. 3–6, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Vol. 21, pp. 57–63.
Nixon, H. P., and Zantopulos, H., 1995, “Fatigue Life Performance Comparisons of Tapered Roller Bearings With Debris-Damaged Raceways,” Lubr. Eng., 51(9), pp. 732–736.
Chao, K. K., Saba, C. S., and Centers, P. W., 1996, “Effects of Lubricant Borne Solid Debris in Rolling Surface Contacts,” Tribol. Trans., 39(1), pp. 13–22. [CrossRef]
Ville, F., and Nelias, D., 1999, “Early Fatigue Failure Due to Dents in EHL Contacts,” Tribol. Trans., 42(4), pp. 795–800. [CrossRef]
Kahlman, L., and Hutchings, I. M., 1999, “Effect of Particulate Contamination in Grease-Lubricated Hybrid Rolling Bearings,” Tribol. Trans., 42(4), pp. 842–850. [CrossRef]
Nélias, D., and Ville, F., 2000, “Detrimental Effects of Debris Dents on Rolling Contact Fatigue,” ASME J. Tribol., 122(1), pp. 55–64. [CrossRef]
Nilsson, R., Olofsson, U., and Sundvall, K., 2005, “Filtration and Coating Effects on Self-Generated Particle Wear in Boundary Lubricated Roller Bearings,” Tribol. Int., 38(2), pp. 145–150. [CrossRef]
Ville, F., Coulon, S., and Lubrecht, A. A., 2006, “Influence of Solid Contaminants on the Fatigue Life of Lubricated Machine Elements,” J. Eng. Tribol., 220(5), pp. 441–445.
SKF General Catalogue, Catalogue 5000 E, SKF, June 2003.
Ai, X., 2001, “Effect of Debris Contamination on the Fatigue Life of Roller Bearings,” J. Eng. Tribol., 215(6), pp. 563–575.
General Motors Corporation, 1971, New Departure Handbook, 7th ed., General Motors Corporation, Bristol, CT.
Wedeven, L. D., 1979, “Diagnostics of Wear in Aeronautical Systems,” The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC, Report No. NASA TM 79185.
Cunningham, J. S., and Morgan, M. A., 1979, “Review of Aircraft Bearing Rejection Criteria and Causes,” ASLE Lubr. Eng., 35(8), pp. 435–441.
Hamer, J. C., Sayles, R. S., and Ioannides, E., 1987, “Deformation Mechanisms and Stresses Created by 3rd Body Debris Contacts and Their Effects on Rolling Bearing Fatigue,” Proceedings of the 14th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Lyon, France, Sept. 8–11, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Vol. 12, pp. 201–208.
Hamer, J. C., Sayles, R. S., and Ioannides, E., 1989, “Particle Deformation and Counterface Damage When Relatively Soft Particles are Squashed Between Hard Anvils,” Tribol. Trans., 32(3), pp. 281–288. [CrossRef]
Hamer, J. C., and Hutchinson, J., 1992, “Denting of Rolling Element Bearings by Third Body Particles,” Tribology Group, Mechanical Engineering Department, Imperial College London, London, PCS Report No. 33/92.
Dwyer-Joyce, R. S., 1993, “The Effects of Lubricant Contamination on Rolling Bearing Performance,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London.
Ko, C. N., and Ioannides, E., 1989, “Debris Denting—The Associated Residual Stresses and Their Effect on the Fatigue Life of Rolling Bearings: An FEM Analysis,” Tribological Design of Machine Elements, D.Dowson, C. M. Taylor, M. Godet, and D. Berthe, eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 199–207.
Xu, G., Sadeghi, F., and Cogdell, J. D., 1997, “Debris Denting Effects on Elastohydrodynamic Lubricated Contacts,” ASME J. Tribol., 119(3), pp. 579–587. [CrossRef]
Kang, Y. S., Sadeghi, F., and Hoeprich, M. R., 2004, “A Finite Element Model for Spherical Debris Denting in Heavily Loaded Contacts,” ASME J. Tribol., 126(1), pp. 71–80. [CrossRef]
Antaluca, E., and Nélias, D., 2008, “Contact Fatigue Analysis of a Dented Surface in a Dry Elastic–Plastic Circular Point Contact,” Tribol. Lett., 29(2), pp. 139–153. [CrossRef]
Nikas, G. K., 2013, “Debris Particle Indentation and Abrasion of Machine-Element Contacts: An Experimentally Validated, Thermoelastoplastic Numerical Model With Micro-Hardness and Frictional Heating Effects,” J. Eng. Tribol., 227(6), pp. 579–617.
Khonsari, M. M., and Wang, S. H., 1990, “On the Role of Particulate Contamination in Scuffing Failure,” Wear, 137(1), pp. 51–62. [CrossRef]
Khonsari, M. M., Pascovici, M. D., and Kucinschi, B. V., 1999, “On the Scuffing Failure of Hydrodynamic Bearings in the Presence of an Abrasive Contaminant,” ASME J. Tribol., 121(1), pp. 90–96. [CrossRef]
Kusano, Y., and Hutchings, I. M., 2003, “Modelling the Entrainment and Motion of Particles in a Gap: Application to Abrasive Wear,” J. Eng. Tribol., 217(6), pp. 427–433.
Fang, L., Liu, W., Du, D., Zhang, X., and Xue, Q., 2004, “Predicting Three-Body Abrasive Wear Using Monte Carlo Methods,” Wear, 256(7–8), pp. 685–694. [CrossRef]
Khonsari, M. M., and Booser, E. R., 2006, “Effect of Contamination on the Performance of Hydrodynamic Bearings,” J. Eng. Tribol., 220(5), pp. 419–428.
Nikas, G. K., Ioannides, E., and Sayles, R. S., 1999, “Thermal Modeling and Effects From Debris Particles in Sliding/Rolling EHD Line Contacts—A Possible Local Scuffing Mode,” ASME J. Tribol., 121(2), pp. 272–281. [CrossRef]
Nikas, G. K., Sayles, R. S., and Ioannides, E., 1999, “Thermoelastic Distortion of EHD Line Contacts During the Passage of Soft Debris Particles,” ASME J. Tribol., 121(2), pp. 265–271. [CrossRef]
Nikas, G. K., 2001, “An Advanced Model to Study the Possible Thermomechanical Damage of Lubricated Sliding–Rolling Line Contacts From Soft Particles,” ASME J. Tribol., 123(4), pp. 828–841. [CrossRef]
Nikas, G. K., 2012, “An Experimentally Validated Numerical Model of Indentation and Abrasion by Debris Particles in Machine-Element Contacts Considering Micro-Hardness Effects,” J. Eng. Tribol., 226(5), pp. 406–438.
Nikas, G. K., 2014, “Strain-Rate Effects on the Plastic Indentation and Abrasion of Elastohydrodynamic Contacts by Debris Particles,” J. Eng. Tribol., 228(1), pp. 22–45.
Turley, D. M., 1975, “The Nature of the White-Etching Surface Layers Produced During Reaming Ultra-High Strength Steel,” Mater. Sci. Eng., 19(1), pp. 79–86. [CrossRef]
Eda, H., Kishi, K., and Hashimoto, S., 1981, “The Formation Mechanism of Ground White Layers,” Bull. JSME, 24(190), pp. 743–747. [CrossRef]
Griffiths, B. J., 1987, “Mechanisms of White Layer Generation With Reference to Machining and Deformation Processes,” ASME J. Tribol., 109(3), pp. 525–530. [CrossRef]
Griffiths, B. J., and Furze, D. C., 1987, “Tribological Advantages of White Layers Produced by Machining,” ASME J. Tribol., 109(2), pp. 338–342. [CrossRef]
Zhang, L., and Mahdi, M., 1995, “Applied Mechanics in Grinding—IV. The Mechanism of Grinding Induced Phase Transformation,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 35(10), pp. 1397–1409. [CrossRef]
Chou, Y. K., and Evans, C. J., 1999, “White Layers and Thermal Modeling of Hard Turned Surfaces,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 39(12), pp. 1863–1881. [CrossRef]
Schöfer, J., Rehbein, P., Stolz, U., Löhe, D., and Zum Gahr, K.-H., 2001, “Formation of Tribochemical Films and White Layers on Self-Mated Bearing Steel Surfaces in Boundary Lubricated Sliding Contact,” Wear, 248(1–2), pp. 7–15. [CrossRef]
Akcan, S., Shah, W. S., Moylan, S. P., Chandrasekar, S., Chhabra, P. N., and Yang, H. T. Y., 2002, “Formation of White Layers in Steels by Machining and Their Characteristics,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 33(4), pp. 1245–1254. [CrossRef]
Barbacki, A., Kawalec, M., and Hamrol, A., 2003, “Turning and Grinding as a Source of Microstructural Changes in the Surface Layer of Hardened Steel,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 133(1–2), pp. 21–25. [CrossRef]
Ramesh, A., Melkote, S. N., Allard, L. F., Riester, L., and Watkins, T. R., 2005, “Analysis of White Layers Formed in Hard Turning of AISI 52100 Steel,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 390(1–2), pp. 88–97. [CrossRef]
Han, S., 2006, “Mechanisms and Modeling of White Layer Formation in Orthogonal Machining of Steels,” Ph.D. thesis, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.
Ramesh, A., and Melkote, S. N., 2008, “Modeling of White Layer Formation Under Thermally Dominant Conditions in Orthogonal Machining of Hardened AISI 52100 Steel,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 48(3–4), pp. 402–414. [CrossRef]
Umbrello, D., Jayal, A. D., Caruso, S., Dillon, O. W., and Jawahir, I. S., 2010, “Modeling of White and Dark Layer Formation in Hard Machining of AISI 52100 Bearing Steel,” Mach. Sci. Technol., 14(1), pp. 128–147. [CrossRef]
Cho, D.-H., Lee, S.-A., and Lee, Y.-Z., 2012, “Mechanical Properties and Wear Behavior of the White Layer,” Tribol. Lett., 45(1), pp. 123–129. [CrossRef]
Duan, C., Kong, W., Hao, Q., and Zhou, F., 2013, “Modeling of White Layer Thickness in High Speed Machining of Hardened Steel Based on Phase Transformation Mechanism,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 69(1–4), pp. 59–70. [CrossRef]
Barry, J., and Byrne, G., 2002, “TEM Study on the Surface White Layer in Two Turned Hardened Steels,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 325(1–2), pp. 356–364. [CrossRef]
Guo, Y. B., and Sahni, J., 2004, “A Comparative Study of Hard Turned and Cylindrically Ground White Layers,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 44(2–3), pp. 135–145. [CrossRef]
Mao, C., Zhou, Z., Zhang, J., Huang, X., and Gu, D., 2011, “An Experimental Investigation of Affected Layers Formed in Grinding of AISI 52100 Steel,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 54(5–8), pp. 515–523. [CrossRef]
Gao, X.-L., 2006, “An Expanding Cavity Model Incorporating Strain-Hardening and Indentation Size Effects,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 43(21), pp. 6615–6629. [CrossRef]
Johnson, G. R., and Cook, W. H., 1983, “A Constitutive Model and Data for Metals Subjected to Large Strains, High Strain Rates and High Temperatures,” Proceedings of the 7th international Symposium on Ballistics, The Hague, The Netherlands, pp. 541–547.
Schwer, L., 2007, “Optional Strain-Rate Forms of the Johnson Cook Constitutive Model and the Role of the Parameter Epsilon_0,” Proceedings of the 6th European LS-DYNA Users' Conference, Anwenderforum, Frankenthal, Germany.
Hill, R., 1950, The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity, Clarendon Press, Oxford, Chap. II, Sec. 3.
Nikas, G. K., 2002, “Fatigue Life and Traction Modeling of Continuously Variable Transmissions,” ASME J. Tribol., 124(4), pp. 689–698. [CrossRef]
Ravichandran, G., Rosakis, A. J., Hodowany, J., and Rosakis, P., 2002, “On the Conversion of Plastic Work Into Heat During High-Strain-Rate Deformation,” Shock Compression of Condensed Matter—2001, M. D.Furnich, N. N.Thadhani, and Y.Horie, eds., 12th APS Topical Conference, June 24–29, 2001, Atlanta, Georgia, Vol. 620. Available at: http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/proceeding/aipcp/620
Pérez-Castellanos, J.-L., and Rusinek, A., 2012, “Temperature Increase Associated With Plastic Deformation Under Dynamic Compression: Application to Aluminium Alloy AL 6082,” J. Theor. Appl. Mech., 50(2), pp. 377–398.
Zaera, R., Rodríguez-Martínez, J. A., and Rittel, D., 2013, “On the Taylor–Quinney Coefficient in Dynamically Phase Transforming Materials. Application to 304 Stainless Steel,” Int. J. Plast., 40, pp. 185–201. [CrossRef]
Carslaw, H. S., and Jaeger, J. C., 1959, Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford, Chap. X.
ASM International, 1991, Heat Treating of Steels and Surface Hardening of Steel, ASM Handbook, Heat Treating, vol. 4, ASM International, Materials Park. OH.
Beswick, J., 1984, “Effect of Prior Cold Work on the Martensite Transformation in SAE 52100,” Metall. Trans., 15(2), pp. 299–306. [CrossRef]
Ville, F., and Nelias, D., 1999, “An Experimental Study of the Concentration and Shape of Dents Caused by Spherical Metallic Particles in EHL Contacts,” Tribol. Trans., 42(1), pp. 231–240. [CrossRef]
Ville, F., and Nelias, D., 1997, “Influence of the Nature and Size of Solid Particles on the Indentation Features in EHL Contacts,” Proceedings of the 24th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, London, Sept. 4–6, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Vol. 34, pp. 399–409.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Model of particle deformation and partitioning into orthogonal blocks (not to scale)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Dark layer, white layer and dent on AISI 52100 steel surface 1 (driver) after indentation by a 36 μm, M50 steel particle, in an EHD contact with 20% slide–roll ratio. The particle sticks to this surface and abrades the other. Input data in Table 1 and results in Tables 2–4.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Dark layer, white layer and dent on AISI 52100 steel surface 2 (follower) after abrasion by a 36 μm, M50 steel particle, in an EHD contact with 20% slide–roll ratio. Input data in Table 1 and results in Tables 2–4.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Dark layers, white layers and dents on AISI 52100 steel counter-surfaces after abrasion by a 36 μm, M50 steel particle, in an EHD contact with 20% slide–roll ratio. Cross section shown at y = 0. Input data in Table 1; results in Tables 2–4 and Figs. 2 and 3.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Effect of particle size on dark and white layer thickness (a) and relative hardness (b). Input data as in Table 5.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Effect of particle cold hardness on dark and white layer thickness (a) and relative hardness (b). Input data as in Table 5.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Effect of Coulomb friction coefficient μ on dark and white layer thickness (a) and relative hardness (b). Input data as in Table 5.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Effect of the rolling velocity of the EHD contact on dark and white layer thickness (a) and relative hardness (b). Input data as in Table 5.




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In