0
Research Papers: Friction & Wear

Finite Element Modeling of Sliding Wear in a Composite Alloy Using a Free-Mesh

[+] Author and Article Information
M. A. Ashraf

College of Engineering,
Alfaisal University,
P.O. Box 50927,
Riyadh 11533, Saudi Arabia

R. Ahmed

College of Engineering,
Alfaisal University,
P.O. Box 50927,
Riyadh 11533, Saudi Arabia
School of Engineering and Physical Sciences,
Heriot-Watt University,
Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK
e-mail: R.Ahmed@hw.ac.uk

O. Ali

School of Engineering and Physical Sciences,
Heriot-Watt University,
Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK

N. H. Faisal

College of Engineering,
Alfaisal University,
P.O. Box 50927,
Riyadh 11533, Saudi Arabia
School of Engineering,
Robert Gordon University,
Garthdee Road,
Aberdeen AB10 7GJ, UK

A. M. El-Sherik

Research and Development Center,
Saudi Aramco,
Dhahran 31311, Saudi Arabia

M. F. A. Goosen

Office of Research & Graduate Studies,
Alfaisal University,
P.O. Box 50927,
Riyadh 11533, Saudi Arabia

Free-mesh is not the same as mesh-free methods of FEM.

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received July 22, 2014; final manuscript received February 18, 2015; published online April 15, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Mircea Teodorescu.

J. Tribol 137(3), 031605 (Jul 01, 2015) (15 pages) Paper No: TRIB-14-1184; doi: 10.1115/1.4029998 History: Received July 22, 2014; Revised February 18, 2015; Online April 15, 2015

A finite element analysis (FEA) based wear algorithm model is presented to predict sliding wear behavior of a composite cobalt-based (Stellite 6) alloy. This study aims to provide an understanding of FEA model behavior using: (a) free-mesh, (b) composite material microstructure, and (c) wear test conditions of loading and geometry which are consistent with ASTM G133-02. Results indicate that the wear model using free-mesh is able to predict wear in composite alloy within the limits of experimental deviation using a suitable kD (wear-rate) value. The rationale for the differences in the experimental setup and FEA model calculations is discussed in terms of the role of wear debris, wear mechanisms, and ball wear.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Crook, P., 1994, “Cobalt-Base Alloys Resist Wear, Corrosion, and Heat,” Adv. Mater. Process., 145(4), pp. 27–30.
Antony, K. C., 1983, “Wear-Resistant Cobalt-Based Alloys,” J. Met., 35(2), pp. 52–60. [CrossRef]
Frenk, A., and Kurz, W., 1994, “Microstructural Effects on the Sliding Wear Resistance of a Cobalt-Based Alloy,” Wear, 174(1–2), pp. 81–91. [CrossRef]
Podra, P., 1997, “FE Wear Simulation of Sliding Contacts,” Ph.D. thesis, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
Podra, P., and Andersson, S., 1999, “Simulating Sliding Wear With Finite Element Method,” Tribol. Int., 32(2), pp. 71–81. [CrossRef]
Podra, P., and Andersson, S., 1997, “Wear Simulation With the Winkler Surface Model,” Wear, 207(1–2), pp. 79–85. [CrossRef]
Hegadekatte, V., Huber, N., and Kraft, O., 2006, “Modeling and Simulation of Wear in a Pin on Disc Tribometer,” Tribol. Lett., 24(1), pp. 51–60. [CrossRef]
Hegadekatte, V., Kurzenhauser, S., Huber, N., and Kraft, O., 2008, “A predictive Modeling Scheme for Wear in Tribometers,” Tribol. Int., 41(11), pp. 1020–1031. [CrossRef]
Sfantos, G. K., and Aliabadi, M. H., 2006, “Wear Simulation Using an Incremental Sliding Boundary Element Method,” Wear, 260(9–10), pp. 1119–1128. [CrossRef]
Sfantos, G. K., and Aliabadi, M. H., 2007, “A Boundary Element Formulation for Three-Dimensional Sliding Wear Simulation,” Wear, 262(5–6), pp. 672–683. [CrossRef]
Holm, R., 1938, “The Friction Force Over the Real Area of Contact,” Wiss. Veroff. Siemens-Werk, 17(4), pp. 38–42. [CrossRef]
Archard, J. F., 1953, “Contact and Rubbing of Flat Surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys., 24(8), pp. 981–988. [CrossRef]
Lim, S. C., and Ashby, M. F., 1987, “Wear-Mechanism Maps,” Acta Metall., 35(1), pp. 1–24. [CrossRef]
Kim, N. H., Won, D., Burris, D., Holtkamp, B., Gessel, G. R., Swansonc, P., and Sawyera, W. G., 2005, “Finite Element Analysis and Experiments of Metal/Metal Wear in Oscillatory Contacts,” Wear, 258(11–12), pp. 1787–1793. [CrossRef]
Andersson, J., Almqvist, A., and Larsson, R., 2011, “Numerical Simulation of a Wear Experiment,” Wear, 271(11–12), pp. 2947–2952. [CrossRef]
Jiang, J., Stott, F. H., and Stack, M. M., 1995, “A Mathematical Model for Sliding Wear of Metals at Elevated Temperatures,” Wear, 181–183(Pt. 1), pp. 20–31. [CrossRef]
Stalin-Muller, N., and Dang Van, K., 1997, “Numerical Simulation of the Sliding Wear Test in Relation to Material Properties,” Wear, 203–204, pp. 180–186. [CrossRef]
Ahmed, R., Ashraf, A., Elameen, M., Faisal, N. H., El-Sherik, A. M., Elakwah, Y. O., and Goosen, M. F. A., 2014, “Single Asperity Nanoscratch Behavior of HIPed and Cast Stellite 6 Alloys,” Wear, 312(1–2), pp. 70–82. [CrossRef]
Ahmed, R., de Villiers Lovelock, H., Davies, S., and Faisal, N. H., 2013, “Influence of Re-HIPing on the Structure–Property Relationships of Cobalt-Based Alloys,” Tribol. Int., 57, pp. 8–21. [CrossRef]
Yu, H., Ahmed, R., de Villiers Lovelock, H., and Davies, S., 2009, “Influence of Manufacturing Process and Alloying Element Content on the Tribomechanical Properties of Cobalt-Based Alloys,” ASME J. Tribol., 131(1), p. 011601. [CrossRef]
Yu, H., Ahmed, R., and de Villiers Lovelock, H., 2007, “A Comparison of the Tribo-Mechanical Properties of Wear-Resistant Cobalt Based Alloys Produced by Different Manufacturing Processes,” ASME J. Tribol., 129(3), pp. 586–594. [CrossRef]
Meng, H. C., and Ludema, K. C., 1995, “Wear Models and Predictive Equations: Their Form and Content,” Wear, 181–183(Pt. 2), pp. 443–457. [CrossRef]
Ashraf, M. A., 2009, “Wear Modelling and FEA Simulation for Dry Sliding Contacts,” Ph.D. thesis, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia.
Hsu, S. M., Shen, M. C., and Ruff, A. W., 1997, “Wear Prediction for Metal,” Tribol. Int., 30(5), pp. 377–383. [CrossRef]
Ismail, R., 2013, “Running in of Rolling Sliding Contact,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
Dorinson, A., and Broman, V. E., 1961, “Contact Stress and Load as Parameter in Metallic Wear,” Wear, 4(2), pp. 93–110. [CrossRef]
Richard, R. C. D., 1967, “The Maximum Hardness of Strained Surface and the Abrasive Wear of Metals and Alloys,” Wear, 10(5), pp. 353–382. [CrossRef]
Hertz, H., 1882, “Ueber die Berührung fester elastischer Körper,” J. Reine Angew. Math., 1882(92), pp. 156–171 (in German). [CrossRef]
Oliver, W. C., and Pharr, G. M., 1992, “An Improved Technique for Determining Hardness and Elastic Modulus Using Load and Displacement Sensing Indentation Experiments,” J. Mater. Res., 7(6), pp. 1564–1583. [CrossRef]
Petersson, V., 2007, “An Implementation of Mesh Free Methods for Mechanical Problems at Large Strains,” Master's thesis, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
Sarkar, A. D., 1980, Friction and Wear, Academic Press, London, UK.
Ashraf, M. A., Sobhi-Najafabadi, B., Göl, Ö., and Sugumar, D., 2007, “Numerical Simulation of Sliding Wear for a Polymer–Polymer Sliding Contact in an Automotive Application,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 41(11–12), pp. 1118–1129. [CrossRef]
Madenci, E., and Guven, I., 2006, The Finite Element Method and Applications in Engineering Using ANSYS®, Springer, New York.
ANSYS, 2012, “ANSYS User Manual,” ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, PA, http://www.ansys.com/
Ahmed, R., de Villiers Lovelock, H., Faisal, N. H., and Davies, S., 2014, “Structure–Property Relationships in a CoCrMo Alloy at Micro and Nano-Scales,” Tribol. Int., 80, pp. 98–114. [CrossRef]
Yang, L. J., 2005, “A Methodology for the Prediction of Standard Steady-State Wear Coefficient in an Aluminium-Based Matrix Composite Reinforced With Alumina Particles,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 162–163, pp. 139–148. [CrossRef]
Ahmed, R., Yu, H., Edwards, L., and Santisteban, J. R., 2008, “Neutron Diffraction Residual Strain Measurements in Post-Treated Thermal Spray Cermet Coatings,” Mater. Sci. Eng.: A, 498(1–2), pp. 191–202. [CrossRef]
Sutcliffe, M. P. F., Le, H., and Ahmed, R., 2001, “Modelling of Micro-Pit Evolution in Rolling or Strip Drawing,” ASME J. Tribol., 123(4), pp. 791–798. [CrossRef]
Ahmed, R., and Sutcliffe, M. P. F., 2001, “An Experimental Investigation of Surface Pit Evolution During Cold Rolling or Drawing of Stainless Steel Strip,” ASME J. Tribol., 123(1), pp. 1–7. [CrossRef]
Ahmed, R., and Sutcliffe, M. P. F., 2000, “Identification of Surface Features on Cold-Rolled Stainless Steel Strip,” Wear, 244(1), pp. 60–70. [CrossRef]
Salehabadi, M., Jin, M., Yang, J., Haghighi, H., Ahmed, R., and Tohidi, B., 2009, “Finite Element Modelling of Casing in Gas Hydrate Bearing Sediments,” SPE Drill. Completion, 24(4), pp. 545–552. [CrossRef]
Stoica, V., Ahmed, R., Golshan, M., and Tobe, S., 2004, “Sliding Wear Evaluation of Hot Isostatically Pressed Thermal Spray Ceramet Coatings,” J. Therm. Spray Technol., 13(1), pp. 93–107. [CrossRef]
Ahmed, R., Ali, O., Faisal, N. H., Al-Anazi, N. M., Al-Mutairi, S., Toma, F.-L., Berger, L.-M., Potthoff, A., and Goosen, M. F. A., 2015, “Sliding Wear Investigation of Suspension Sprayed WC–Co Nanocomposite Coatings,” Wear, 322–323, pp. 133–150. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of the (a) factors controlling sliding wear process, (b) evolution of the real contact area for disk wear [7,8], and (c) wear simulation process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) (i) Ball-on-flat wear test schematic, (ii) half symmetry two-dimensional (2D) model schematic, and (iii) the FEA mesh model with three-dimensional (3D) half symmetry; (b) half symmetry model of ball and track contact area showing refined contact mesh; and (c) contact area calculations at each sliding step [5]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) SEM observation of cast Stellite 6 microstructure and (b) XRD pattern of cast Stellite 6

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

SEM observations (SEI and BEI) of the end of wear tracks at: (a) 10 m, (b) 30 m, (c) 50 m, (d) 75 m, and (e) 500 m sliding distances

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Higher magnification SEM observations (SEI and BEI) of the wear tracks at: (a) 10 m, (b) 30 m, (c) 75 m, and (d) 500 m sliding distances

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

SEM observation of the wear debris for the 75 m sliding test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

SEM of transfer film on WC–Co ball surface after the 75 m sliding test with oxygen EDX analysis inlayed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Friction coefficient plots for the 10–100 m sliding distance tests

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Ball-on-flat and FEA wear volume results for Stellite 6 for (a) a sliding distance of 10–500 m on the log scale. Values of the experimental standard deviation of the wear volume loss for the 500 m sliding wear tests are also indicated. The percentage of experimental error for the 500 m sliding distance was recorded as ±18.7% = ≈|37%|. (b) Ball-on-flat and FEA wear volume results for Stellite 6 for a 100 m sliding distance.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Contact pressure over the sliding distance

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Wear regimes and wear-rate comparison for experimental data and FEA model for Stellite 6 for a sliding distance of 10–500 m on the log scale. Values of the experimental standard deviation of the wear-rate for the 500 m sliding wear tests are also indicated.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Wear track cross section profiles of wear scar, FEA model and ball geometry for: (a) 10 m, (b) 50 m, (c) 100 m sliding distances, and (d) 3D-map of wear track for 100 m sliding distance

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Percentage error between experimental data and FEA results for the sliding distance of 10–500 m on the log scale. The percentage experimental error recorded for the 500 m sliding distance tests was ±18.7% = ≈|37%|as indicated in Fig. 9.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In