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Research Papers: Friction & Wear

Effect of Impact Angle on the Erosion–Corrosion Behavior of AISI 420 Stainless Steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl Solution

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Ranjbar, M. Abedini

School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering,
College of Engineering,
University of Tehran,
Tehran 1439957131, Iran

H. M. Ghasemi

School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering,
College of Engineering,
University of Tehran,
Tehran 1439957131, Iran
e-mail: hghasemi@ut.ac.ir

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received July 26, 2014; final manuscript received February 21, 2015; published online April 8, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Robert Wood.

J. Tribol 137(3), 031604 (Jul 01, 2015) (6 pages) Paper No: TRIB-14-1186; doi: 10.1115/1.4029939 History: Received July 26, 2014; Revised February 21, 2015; Online April 08, 2015

Erosion, erosion–corrosion, and synergistic behaviors of AISI 420 stainless steel were studied in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution containing silica sand with the size of 250–500 μm as erodent particle. The erosion and erosion–corrosion tests were carried out according to ASTM G11909 standard and the synergism was calculated. The tests were performed using a slurry jet apparatus at a jet velocity of 6.5 m/s, sand concentration of 90 g/l, and various impinging angles of 20 deg–90 deg. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the eroded surfaces and erosion mechanisms. The SEM images showed that under low impacting angles, cutting deformation was the main erosion mechanism while impact and work hardening could be responsible for material removal at high impacting angles. The results showed that the maximum erosion–corrosion and synergism rates occurred at an impingement angle of about 50 deg while the maximum pure erosion rate was obtained at impingement angle of about 35 deg. Energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis showed that an oxide layer was formed on the surfaces of the samples during erosion–corrosion tests. This oxide layer could make the surface more brittle and could lead to an increment of about 15 deg in the angle of the maximum removal rate. The formation and the subsequent removal of the nonprotective oxide layer as well as possible initiation and propagation of pits during erosion–corrosion tests could lead to higher erosion–corrosion rate compared to pure erosion resulting in a positive synergism under the conditions tested.

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Figures

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Fig. 5

SEM image of erosion–corrosion surface of AISI 420 stainless steel eroded at jet velocity of 6.5 m/s, sand concentration of 90 g/l for 45 min at impingement angle of 30 deg. The single headed and double headed arrows show the erosion direction and the erosion tracks, respectively.

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Fig. 6

SEM images of a possible pit on the surface of erosion–corrosion sample under a jet velocity of 6.5 m/s, sand concentration of 90 g/l, impingement angle of 50 deg for 45 min at two different magnifications. The arrows show the erosion direction.

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Fig. 4

Polarization diagram for stagnant corrosion of AISI 420 stainless steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution

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Fig. 3

SEM images of typical wear marks on surfaces of AISI 420 stainless steels eroded at a jet velocity of 6.5 m/s for 45 min, erosion–corrosion at impingement angles of (a) 50 deg and (b) 90 deg, pure erosion at impingement angles of (c) 50 deg and (d) 90 deg. The single headed and double headed arrows show the erosion direction and the erosion tracks, respectively.

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Fig. 2

The effect of impact angle on pure erosion, erosion–corrosion, and synergism rates of AISI 420 stainless steel at a jet velocity of 6.5 m/s, sand concentration of 90 g/l for 45 min

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Fig. 1

Effect of impinging angle on the number of particles impacted on the sample at impingement angles of: (a) 90 deg and (b) 30 deg

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Fig. 7

SEM images of erosion–corrosion surfaces at impingement angles of (a) 30 deg, (b) 50 deg, (c) 90 deg, and (d) pure erosion surface at impingement angle of 50 deg. The circles and arrows show the pits and the erosion direction, respectively.

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Fig. 8

Synergism percent as a function of impact angle for AISI 420 stainless steel obtained at a jet velocity of 6.5 m/s, sand concentration of 90 g/l for test duration of 45 min

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