Research Papers: Hydrodynamic Lubrication

A Numerical Model to Study the Role of Surface Textures at Top Dead Center Reversal in the Piston Ring to Cylinder Liner Contact

[+] Author and Article Information
N. Morris, H. Rahnejat, P. D. King

Wolfson School of Mechanical and
Manufacturing Engineering,
Loughborough University,
Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK

R. Rahmani

Wolfson School of Mechanical and
Manufacturing Engineering,
Loughborough University,
Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK
e-mail: R.Rahmani@lboro.ac.uk

S. Howell-Smith

Capricorn Automotive Ltd.,
Basingstoke RG24 8AH, UK

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received March 19, 2015; final manuscript received September 28, 2015; published online November 4, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Mihai Arghir.

J. Tribol 138(2), 021703 (Nov 04, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: TRIB-15-1087; doi: 10.1115/1.4031780 History: Received March 19, 2015; Revised September 28, 2015

Minimization of parasitic losses in the internal combustion (IC) engine is essential for improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions. Surface texturing has emerged as a method palliating these losses in instances where thin lubricant films lead to mixed or boundary regimes of lubrication. Such thin films are prevalent in contact of compression ring to cylinder liner at piston motion reversals because of momentary cessation of entraining motion. The paper provides combined solution of Reynolds equation, boundary interactions, and a gas flow model to predict the tribological conditions, particularly at piston reversals. This model is then validated against measurements using a floating liner for determination of in situ friction of an engine under motored condition. Very good agreement is obtained. The validated model is then used to ascertain the effect of surface texturing of the liner surface during reversals. Therefore, the paper is a combined study of numerical predictions and the effect of surface texturing. The predictions show that some marginal gains in engine performance can be expected with laser textured chevron features of shallow depth under certain operating conditions.

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Fig. 1

Contact configuration

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Fig. 2

Film shape for contact with surface texture

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Fig. 3

Polynomial fit for measured ring face profile shape

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Fig. 4

A schematic of geometry and distribution parameters of chevrons

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Fig. 5

The control volumes for the gas blow-by model

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Fig. 6

Motored data for speed and in-cylinder pressure for validation

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Fig. 7

Measuring friction with a floating liner

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Fig. 8

Experimental motored data at 3000 rpm with and without the top compression ring

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Fig. 9

Numerical prediction of friction motored at 3000 rpm 40 °C

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Fig. 10

Comparison of numerical predictions and experimental results for motored engine at 3000 rpm and 40 °C for the regions before and after the TDC reversal

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Fig. 11

(a) Measured cylinder liner temperature and (b) measured in-cylinder combustion pressure for fired engine at 3000 rpm with partial throttle (low load of 30 N · m)

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Fig. 12

Percentage of reduction in friction using two different texture patterns for the region of −20 to 20 deg around TDC at different oil temperatures

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Fig. 13

Proportion of boundary friction in the total generated friction at TDC reversal at liner temperature of 92 °C

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Fig. 14

Microhydrodynamic pressure perturbations over textured area




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