Research Papers: Hydrodynamic Lubrication

Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of a Machine Hammer Peened Surface Structure for Lubricated Sliding Contacts

[+] Author and Article Information
D. Trauth

Laboratory for Machine Tools
and Production Engineering WZL,
Department of Grinding and Forming,
RWTH Aachen University,
Steinbachstr. 19,
Aachen 52074, Germany
e-mail: D.Trauth@wzl.rwth-aachen.de

F. Klocke

Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering WZL,
RWTH Aachen University,
Steinbachstr. 19,
Aachen 52074, Germany

M. Terhorst, P. Mattfeld

Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering WZL,
Department of Grinding and Forming,
RWTH Aachen University,
Steinbachstr. 19,
Aachen 52074, Germany

1Corresponding author.

2Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr.-Ing. E.h. Dr. h.c. Professor of Manufacturing Technology, director of the Chair of Manufacturing Technology, co-director of the Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering WZL of RWTH Aachen University, and Head of the Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT in Aachen, Germany.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received April 28, 2015; final manuscript received October 11, 2015; published online November 9, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Daniel Nélias.

J. Tribol 138(2), 021704 (Nov 09, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: TRIB-15-1139; doi: 10.1115/1.4031782 History: Received April 28, 2015; Revised October 11, 2015

Machine hammer peening (MHP) is an incremental surface finishing process. It enables both surface smoothing and texturing. Compared to well-established surface texturing processes, MHP has the advantage of simultaneous induction of strain hardening and compressive residual stresses. Both texturing and surface layer modification are very beneficial in case of mixed-boundary lubrication. MHP has been only recently developed. Therefore, the influence of surface textures manufactured by MHP on tribological interactions is unknown and lacks fundamental investigations. In this work, hydrodynamics of MHP textures is investigated by means of a three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. The analyzed MHP textures have already been experimentally used to reduce friction in strip drawing tests. Using CFD analysis, an optimal arrangement of multiple elliptically shaped surface structures for maximizing the fluid pressure and the load-bearing capacity is determined. Furthermore, a correlation between the determined process parameters and the lubrication properties is presented. Because of significantly high hydrostatic pressures, cavitation is neglected in this work. Additionally, the effect of structure pileups is neglected in this study. Within the range of parameters investigated, it was found that an arrangement of surface textures by MHP should be transversally overlapping and clearly separated longitudinally. High structure depths, lubricant viscosities, and sliding velocities further improve the load-bearing capacity as well as small fluid-film thicknesses.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Steitz, M. , Scheil, J. , Müller, C. , and Groche, P. , 2013, “ Effect of Process Parameters on Surface Roughness in Hammer Peening and Deep Rolling,” Key Eng. Mater., 554–557, pp. 1887–1901. [CrossRef]
Bleicher, F. , Lechner, C. , Habersohn, C. , Kozeschnik, E. , Adjassoho, B. , and Kaminiski, H. , 2012, “ Mechanism of Surface Modification Using Machine Hammer Peening Technology,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol., 61(1), pp. 375–378. [CrossRef]
Wied, J. , 2011, “ Oberflächenbehandlung von Umformwerkzeugen durch Festklopfen,” Ph.D. thesis, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany.
Lienert, F. , Hoffmeister, J. , and Schulze, V. , 2013, “ Residual Stress Depth Distribution after Piezo Peening of Quenched and Tempered AISI 4140,” ICSR 9, Materials Science Forum, pp. 768–769.
Trauth, D. , Klocke, F. , Schongen, F. , and Shirobokov, A. , 2013, “ Analyse und Modellierung der Schlagkraft beim elektro-dynamischen Festklopfen zur kraftbasierten Prozessauslegung,” UTFScience III/2013, http://www.umformtechnik.net
Klocke, F. , Trauth, D. , Schongen, F. , and Shirobokov, A. , 2014, “ Analysis of Friction Between Stainless Steel Sheets and Machine Hammer Peened Structured Tool Surfaces: Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Lubricated Interaction Gap,” Prod. Eng., 8(3), pp. 263–272. [CrossRef]
Klocke, F. , Trauth, D. , Schongen, F. , and Terhorst, M. , 2013, “ Time-Efficient Process Design of Machine Hammer Peening—Prediction of the Surface Layer State Using Similitude Theory,” Werkstatttechnik Wt Online, 10, pp. 758–763.
Klocke, F. , Trauth, D. , Terhorst, M. , and Mattfeld, P. , 2014, “ Wear Analysis of Tool Surfaces Structured by Machine Hammer Peening for Foil-Free Forming of Stainless Steel,” Adv. Mater. Res., 1018, pp. 317–324. [CrossRef]
Trauth, D. , Klocke, F. , Terhorst, M. , and Mattfeld, P. , 2015, “ Physicochemical Analysis of Machine Hammer Peened Surface Structures for Deep Drawing: Determination of the Work of Adhesion and Spreading Pressure Between Lubricant and Surface Structure,” ASME J. Tribol., 137(2), pp. 022301. [CrossRef]
Ramesh, A. , Akram, W. , Mishra, S. P. , Cannon, A. H. , Polycarpou, A. A. , and King, W. P. , 2013, “ Friction Characteristics of Microtextured Surfaces Under Mixed and Hydrodynamic Lubrication,” Tribol. Int., 57(1), pp. 170–176. [CrossRef]
Dobrica, M. B. , Fillon, M. , Pascovici, M. D. , and Cicone, T. , 2010, “ Optimizing Surface Texture for Hydrodynamic Lubricated Contacts Using a Mass-Conserving Numerical Approach,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J, 224(8), pp. 737–750. [CrossRef]
Brizmer, V. , Kligermann, Y. , and Etsion, I. , 2003, “ A Laser Surface Textured Parallel Thrust Bearing,” Tribol. Trans., 46(3), pp. 397–403. [CrossRef]
Brizmer, V. , and Kligermann, Y. , 2012, “ A Laser Surface Textured Journal Bearing,” ASME J. Tribol., 134(3), p. 031702. [CrossRef]
Reynolds, O. , 1886, “ On the Theory of Lubrication,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London, 177(0), pp. 157–237. [CrossRef]
Jacobs, G. , and Plogmann, M. , 2013, Tribology, Druck & Verlagshaus Mainz, Aachen, Germany.
Popov, L. , 2009, Kontaktmechanik und Reibung. Ein Lehr- und Anwendungsbuch von der Nanotribologie bis zur numerischen Simulation, Springer, Berlin.
Young, R. F. , 1999, Cavitation, Imperial College Press, London. [PubMed] [PubMed]
Hartinger, M. , 2007, “ CFD Modelling of Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication,” Ph.D. thesis, Imperial College London, London.
Dowson, D. , 1975, Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology: Cavitation and Related Phenomena in Lubrication, 1st: Proceedings, Institution of Mechanical Engineers.
Brennen, C. E. , 1995, Cavitation and Bubble Dynamics, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Brown, S. R. , and Hamilton, G. M. , 1978, “ Negative Pressures Under a Lubricated Piston Ring,” J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 20(1), pp. 49–57. [CrossRef]
Kaneko, S. , Yuji, H. , and Hiroki, I. , 1996, “ Analysis of Oil-Film Pressure Distribution in Porous Journal Bearing Under Hydrodynamic Lubrication Conditions Using an Improved Boundary Condition,” 1996 ASME/STLE Joint Tribology Conference, pp. 1–8.
Wissussek, D. , 1978, “ Das hydrodynamische Druckprofil im Radialgleitlager und sein Einfluss auf die Tragfaehigkeit bei Variation des Umgebungsdruckes,” Fortschritt-Berichte der VDI-Zeitschriften, Reihe 4: Bauingenieurwesen, Report No. 54.
Khonsari, M. M. , and Booser, E. R. , 2008, Applied Tribology: Bearing Design and Lubrication, Wiley, Weinheim, Germany.
Dobrica, M. , and Fillon, M. , 2009, “ About the Validity of Reynolds Equation and Inertia Effects in Textured Sliders of Infinite Width,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J, 223(1), pp. 69–78. [CrossRef]
Costa, H. L. , and Hutchings, I. M. , 2007, “ Hydrodynamic Lubrication of Textured Steel Surfaces Under Reciprocating Sliding Conditions,” Tribol. Int., 40(8), pp. 1227–1238. [CrossRef]
Krupka, I. , and Hartl, M. , 2007, “ The Effect of Surface Texturing on Thin EHD Lubrication Films,” Tribol. Int., 40(7), pp. 1100–1110. [CrossRef]
Brewe, D. E. , 2001, “ Slider Bearings,” Modern Tribology Handbook, CRC Press, New York.
Han, J. , Fang, L. , Sun, J. , and Ge, S. , 2010, “ Hydrodynamic Lubrication of Microdimple Textured Surface Using Three-Dimensional CFD,” Tribol. Trans., 53(6), pp. 860–870. [CrossRef]
Klocke, F. , Trauth, D. , Terhorst, M. , and Mattfeld, P. , 2014, “ Friction Analysis of Alternative Tribosystems for a Foil Free Forming of Stainless Steel Using Strip Drawing Test: Analysis of Physicochemical Interactions Between Coatings and Lubricants,” Prod. Eng., 8(5), pp. 593–602. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Illustration of the approach pursued in this work

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Visualization of different velocity profiles along the structure length L. Entering the structure, the profile shape changes from concave (a) to linear (b) to convex (c) in the structure center. Exiting the structure, the fluid flow changes back over a linear transition (d) to a concave profile (e) leading to a symmetrical situation.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Illustration of the slider bearing geometry (a) and validation of the CFD model (b). Legend: U = velocity of the sliding plate (mm/s), h = height of the slider bearing geometry (mm), v = velocity profile (mm/s), and p = pressure profile (MPa).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Illustration of contact mechanics of MHP (a) and an exemplary surface structure (b). The structure parameterized in (c). Legend: f = MHP frequency (Hz), v  = machine feed rate (m/min), lp = line pitch (mm), a = indentation distance (mm), d = head diameter (mm), F = impact force (N), Ra = surface roughness (μm), σi = equivalent stresses in the inner surface layer (MPa), 2rp1 = structure length (μm), 2rp2 = structure width (μm), hp = structure height (μm), 2r1 = cell length (μm), and 2r2 = cell width(μm).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Visualization of the resulting (a) as well as the transversal fluid flow (b). The velocity of the transversal fluid flow is approximately ten times lower than that of the resulting flow vector.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Illustration of selected 3D fluid pressures regarding varying geometry parameters (a) and analysis of the corresponding transversal fluid pressure profiles (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Comparison of the approximated structure geometry with experimental data (a) and analysis of the resulting fluid pressure profiles longitudinal to the sliding direction (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Discretization analysis (a) to obtain the best results. (b) The computation time and numerical deviation from the analytic solutions are given.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Illustration of selected 3D fluid pressures (a) and analysis of the influence of the gap height on the transversal fluid pressure profile (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Combined investigation of longitudinally and transversely mixed structures on the fluid pressure (a), nonoverlapping (b), touching (c), and overlapping (d) structures is discussed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Recommendation of an optimized surface structure for hydrodynamic applications using MHP as surface finishing process. (a) The overall arrangement is qualitatively shown, while (b) shows the parameter of one single structure, and in (c) indicators at the tribological parameters are given.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Investigation of the impact of overlapping and nonoverlapping structure arrangements on the fluid pressure (a) and the transversal fluid pressure profile (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Load-bearing capacity of transversely arranged structures: table data (a) and graphical illustration (b). Legend: 2r2 = level of transversal overlap, p¯ = averaged fluid pressure (MPa), and ∫ p(y)dy = load-bearing capacity (MPa mm).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Analysis of the impact of touching (a) and overlapping (b) structures on the longitudinal fluid pressure



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In