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Research Papers: Biotribology

Influence of the Hip Joint Modeling Approaches on the Kinematics of Human Gait

[+] Author and Article Information
João Costa

Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica,
Universidade do Minho,
Campus de Azurém,
Guimarães 4804-533, Portugal
e-mail: joaopmoraiscosta@gmail.com

Joaquim Peixoto

2C2T/Department of Textile Engineering,
Universidade do Minho,
Campus de Azurém,
Guimarães 4804-533, Portugal
e-mail: jjorge@det.uminho.pt

Pedro Moreira

Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica,
Universidade do Minho,
Campus de Azurém,
Guimarães 4804-533, Portugal
e-mail: pfsmoreira@dem.uminho.pt

António Pedro Souto

2C2T/Department of Textile Engineering,
Universidade do Minho,
Campus de Azurém,
Guimarães 4804-533, Portugal
e-mail: souto@det.uminho.pt

Paulo Flores

Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica,
Universidade do Minho,
Campus de Azurém,
Guimarães 4804-533, Portugal
e-mail: pflores@dem.uminho.pt

Hamid M. Lankarani

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Wichita State University,
Wichita, KS 67260-133
e-mail: hamid.lankarani@wichita.edu

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received May 11, 2015; final manuscript received October 14, 2015; published online January 29, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Zhong Min Jin.

J. Tribol 138(3), 031201 (Jan 29, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: TRIB-15-1150; doi: 10.1115/1.4031988 History: Received May 11, 2015; Revised October 14, 2015

The influence of the hip joint formulation on the kinematic response of the model of human gait is investigated throughout this work. To accomplish this goal, the fundamental issues of the modeling process of a planar hip joint under the framework of multibody systems are revisited. In particular, the formulations for the ideal, dry, and lubricated revolute joints are described and utilized for the interaction of femur head inside acetabulum or the hip bone. In this process, the main kinematic and dynamic aspects of hip joints are analyzed. In a simple manner, the forces that are generated during human gait, for both dry and lubricated hip joint models, are computed in terms of the system's state variables and subsequently introduced into the dynamics equations of motion of the multibody system as external generalized forces. Moreover, a human multibody model is considered, which incorporates the different approaches for the hip articulation, namely, ideal joint, dry, and lubricated models. Finally, several computational simulations based on different approaches are performed, and the main results are presented and compared to identify differences among the methodologies and procedures adopted in this work. The input conditions to the models correspond to the experimental data capture from an adult male during normal gait. In general, the obtained results in terms of positions do not differ significantly when different hip joint models are considered. In sharp contrast, the velocity and acceleration plotted vary significantly. The effect of the hip joint modeling approach is clearly measurable and visible in terms of peaks and oscillations of the velocities and accelerations. In general, with the dry hip model, intrajoint force peaks can be observed, which can be associated with the multiple impacts between the femur head and the cup. In turn, when the lubricant is present, the system's response tends to be smoother due to the damping effects of the synovial fluid.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Journal–bearing in a planar multibody system representing the hip joint in this study

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Fig. 2

Two-dimensional human multibody model

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Fig. 3

The shank–foot subpart of the human multibody model

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Fig. 4

Y-position of the thigh for a complete gait cycle (hip radius of 32 mm, radial clearance of 20 μm, and viscosity of 500 Pa·s)

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Fig. 5

Y-velocity of the thigh for a complete gait cycle (hip radius of 32 mm, radial clearance of 20 μm, and viscosity of 500 Pa·s)

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Fig. 6

Y-acceleration of the thigh for a complete gait cycle (hip radius of 32 mm, radial clearance of 20 μm, and viscosity of 500 Pa·s)

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Fig. 7

Poincaré map for a complete gait cycle (hip radius of 32 mm, radial clearance of 20 μm, and viscosity of 500 Pa·s)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Y-position of the thigh for a complete gait cycle (hip radius of 32 mm, radial clearance of 20 μm, and viscosity of 250 Pa·s)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Y-velocity of the thigh for a complete gait cycle (hip radius of 32 mm, radial clearance of 20 μm, and viscosity of 250 Pa·s)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Y-acceleration of the thigh for a complete gait cycle (hip radius of 32 mm, radial clearance of 20 μm, and viscosity of 250 Pa·s)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Poincaré map for a complete gait cycle (hip radius of 32 mm, radial clearance of 20 μm, and viscosity of 250 Pa·s)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Y-position of the thigh for a complete gait cycle (hip radius of 28 mm, radial clearance of 20 μm, and viscosity of 250 Pa·s)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Y-velocity of the thigh for a complete gait cycle (hip radius of 28 mm, radial clearance of 20 μm, and viscosity of 250 Pa·s)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Y-acceleration of the thigh for a complete gait cycle (hip radius of 28 mm, radial clearance of 20 μm, and viscosity of 250 Pa·s)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Poincaré map for a complete gait cycle (hip radius of 28 mm, radial clearance of 20 μm, and viscosity of 250 Pa·s)

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