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Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Wear and Failure Mechanism of PTFE/SiO2/Epoxy Composites

[+] Author and Article Information
J. T. Shen

Department of Applied Physics,
Materials Innovation Institute M2i,
Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials,
University of Groningen,
Nijenborgh 4,
Groningen 9747 AG, The Netherlands
e-mails: j.shen@rug.nl; j.t.m.de.hosson@rug.nl

Y. T. Pei

Department of Advanced Production Engineering,
Engineering and Technology Institute Groningen,
University of Groningen,
Nijenborgh 4,
Groningen 9747 AG, The Netherlands

J. Th. M. De Hosson

Department of Applied Physics,
Materials Innovation Institute M2i,
Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials,
University of Groningen,
Nijenborgh 4,
Groningen 9747 AG, The Netherlands

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received September 28, 2015; final manuscript received December 24, 2015; published online May 6, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Satish V. Kailas.

J. Tribol 138(3), 031606 (May 06, 2016) (6 pages) Paper No: TRIB-15-1345; doi: 10.1115/1.4032527 History: Received September 28, 2015; Revised December 24, 2015

In this work, the wear and failure mechanism of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)/SiO2/epoxy composites with a high concentration of SiO2 particles under dry sliding is examined. In the composite with 12.5 wt.% PTFE, a significant rise of the coefficient of friction (COF) appears after sliding over several kilometers and under a load of 60 N against balls made out of Al2O3 and steel. It is attributed to an accumulation of back-transferred Al2O3/steel and fractured SiO2 on the worn composite surfaces as well as a reduction of PTFE on worn SiO2 surfaces. The TiC/a-C:H coated ball yields the most stable COF. It is also observed that the loading capacity of the composite decreases with increasing PTFE concentration. Massive wear of the composites is seen after few kilometers sliding when the normal load rises above the loading capacity. The increased wear is due to a high concentration of PTFE which lowers the hardness as well as the compressive strength of the composites.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

COF curves of the Epomet-PTFE-12.5 sliding against the ø13 mm 100Cr6 steel ball, ø13 mm Al2O3 ball, and ø13 mm TiC/a-C:H coated ball, under 60 N normal load and at a speed of 20 mm/s

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Fig. 2

Light micrographs of ((a) and (c)) the worn Epomet-PTFE-12.5 surface and ((b) and (d)) the worn Al2O3 surface after sliding for ((a) and (b)) 3000 m, COF = 0.10, and ((c) and (d)) 4800 m, COF = 0.27, under 60 N normal load and at 20 mm/s speed. The arrows refer to the moving direction of the counterparts.

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Fig. 3

Wear rates of different counterpart balls after sliding against the Epomet-PTFE-12.5 for various distances indicated, under 60 N normal load and at 20 mm/s speed

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Fig. 4

COFs curves of the Epomet-PTFE-12.5 sliding against the Al2O3 ball, under 60 N normal load and at 20 mm/s speed. After the COF increases to 0.115, a fresh and clean composite surface is introduced to slide against the worn Al2O3 ball (old scar curve). The previously worn composite surface is used to slide against a fresh and clean Al2O3 ball surface (old track curve). Another test curve indicates another nonstop test.

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Fig. 5

EDS quantitative results showing the evolution of various elements with sliding distance, when the Epomet-PTFE-12.5 sliding the Al2O3 ball, under 60 N normal load and at 20 mm/s speed. (a) The average at. % of elements on the whole worn composite surfaces and (b) the average at. % of elements on the worn SiO2 surfaces only. The corresponding COF curves are plotted as well in both graphs.

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Fig. 6

(a) Measured Vickers hardness versus the PTFE content of the Epomet-PTFE composites. (b) Measured compressive strength (ultimate strength) of the Epomet-PTFE composites, and the apparent contact pressure (using the area of ball wear scar, MPa) of the Epomet-PTFE composites sliding against Al2O3 ball for 100 m, under various normal load and at 20 mm/s sliding speed. Dots that are above the line indicate evident large fatigue (pitting) wear occurring, while dots that are below the line indicate no sign of fatigue (pitting) wear.

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Fig. 7

COF curves of the Epomet-PTFE composites with various PTFE concentrations sliding against the Al2O3 ball, under various normal load and at 20 mm/s speed

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Fig. 8

An illustration of the method to calculate wear volume via matlab

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