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Research Papers: Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

Factors Affecting Surface Roughness Measurement Results, and the Impact on Predicted Life of Elastohydrodynamic Lubricated Rolling-Element Bearings

[+] Author and Article Information
Wolfgang Holzhauer

The Timken Company,
4500 Mount Pleasant Street Northwest,
P.O. Box 6930,
North Canton, OH 44720
e-mail: w.holzhauer@timken.com

James R. Gnagy

The Timken Company,
4500 Mount Pleasant Street Northwest,
P.O. Box 6930,
North Canton, OH 44720
e-mail: james.gnagy@timken.com

Ryan D. Evans

The Timken Company,
4500 Mount Pleasant Street Northwest,
P.O. Box 6930,
North Canton, OH 44720
e-mail: ryan.evans@timken.com

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received June 10, 2015; final manuscript received December 1, 2015; published online June 21, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Ning Ren.

J. Tribol 138(4), 041501 (Jun 21, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: TRIB-15-1193; doi: 10.1115/1.4032790 History: Received June 10, 2015; Revised December 01, 2015

This work investigates the sensitivity of the surface roughness lubricant life adjustment factor for rolling-element bearings to variations in measured roughness. Roughness measurement results using different values of stylus tip dimension and short wavelength cutoff filter were obtained for several bearing raceway surfaces and used as the inputs for a lubricant life adjustment factor based on the lambda ratio—the ratio of elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) film thickness to the composite surface roughness. The effect on predicted bearing life is shown to be significant. As one means of verification of surface roughness measurements, an ISO type D random/repeating precision roughness specimen was also investigated and shown to have excellent sensitivity to stylus tip dimension, demonstrating its effectiveness as a tool for assessment of stylus radius and condition.

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References

Morales-Espejel, G. E. , 2014, “ Surface Roughness Effects in Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication: A Review With Contributions,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J, 228(11), pp. 1217–1242. [CrossRef]
Tallian, T. E. , 1967, “ Rolling Contact Failure Control Through Lubrication,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part E, 182(3a), pp. 205–236.
Tallian, T. E. , 1981, “ Rolling Bearing Life Modifying Factors for Film Thickness, Surface Roughness, and Friction,” ASME J. Lubr. Technol., 103(4), pp. 509–516.
Skurka, J. , 1970, “ Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Roller Bearings,” ASME J. Lubr. Technol., 92(2), pp. 281–288. [CrossRef]
Moyer, C. A. , 1990, “ Applying the Modified Lambda Ratio to Bearings and Gears,” SAE Technical Paper No. 900910.
ASME Standard B46.1-2009, 2009, “Surface Texture (Surface Roughness, Waviness, and Lay),” ASME, New York.
Harris, T. A. , and Kotzalas, M. N. , 2007, “ Rolling Bearing Analysis,” Advanced Concepts of Bearing Technology, 5th ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 219–231.
Bamberger, E. N. , Harris, T. A. , Kacmarsky, W. M. , Moyer, C. A. , Parker, R. J. , Sherlock, J. J. , and Zaretsky, E. V. , 1971, “ Life Adjustment Factors for Ball and Roller Bearings,” An Engineering Design Guide, ASME Press, New York.
Zaretsky, E. V. , 1992, “STLE Life Factors for Rolling Bearings,” STLE, Park Ridge, IL, pp. 199–200.
ISO Standard 281:2007, 2007, “Roller Bearings—Dynamic Load Ratings and Rating Life,” 2nd ed., ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 23–25.
McCool, J. I. , 1984, “ Assessing the Effect of Stylus Tip Radius and Flight on Surface Topography Measurements,” ASME J. Tribol., 106(2), pp. 202–209. [CrossRef]
Holzhauer, W. , and Evans, R. D. , 2014, “ The Effect of Stylus Tip Dimension and Filter Band Pass on Surface Roughness Measurement,” ASPE 2014 Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, Vol. 59, pp. 611–615.
ISO Standard 5436-1:2000, 2000, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS)—Surface texture: Profile method; Measurement Standards—Part 1: Material Measures, ISO, Geneva, Switzerland.
2011, “Timken Engineering Manual,” The Timken Company, North Canton, OH, p. 50.
ABMA Standard 11-1990, 1990, “Load Ratings and Fatigue Life for Roller Bearings,” ABMA, Washington, DC, p. 15.
Houpert, L. , and Chevalier, F. , 2012, “ Rolling Bearing Stress Based Life, Part I: Calculation Model,” ASME J. Tribol., 134(2), p. 021103. [CrossRef]
Gnagy, J. , Houpert, L. , and Chevalier, F. , 2012, “ Rolling Bearing Stress Based Life, Part II: Experimental Calibration and Validation,” ASME J. Tribol., 134(2), p. 021104. [CrossRef]
Zwick, M. A. , 2015, “Application Engineering Specialist,” The Timken Corporation, Personal Correspondence, Apr. 14, 2015.
Marucci, B. A. , 2015, “Senior Application Engineer,” The Timken Corporation, private communication.
Song, J. F. , 1988, “ Random Profile Precision Roughness Calibration Specimens,” Surf. Topogr., 1, pp. 303–314.
Malburg, M. C. , 1996, “ A Unified Methodology for the Application of Surface Metrology,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Figures

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Fig. 1

Roughness measurements as a function of nominal stylus tip radius and filter band pass—Component: roller 1

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Fig. 2

Roughness measurements as a function of nominal stylus tip radius and filter band pass—Component: roller 2

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Fig. 3

Roughness measurements as a function of nominal stylus tip radius and filter band pass—Component: inner ring

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Fig. 4

Roughness measurements as a function of nominal stylus tip radius and filter band pass—Component: outer ring

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Fig. 5

SEM photomicrographs of three stylus tips

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Fig. 6

Plot of relative life adjustment factor L/L10 versus lambda ratio. Data points plotted from Harris and Kotzalas curve [7], with exponential curve fit.

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Fig. 7

Lubricant life adjustment factors (L/L10) for the pinion and wheel bearing combinations, plotted as a function of the stylus and band pass used for the surface roughness measurement

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Fig. 8

Measurements of Ra (μm), Rz (μm), and Rsk as a function of nominal stylus tip radius on an ISO type D random roughness specimen (bars show mean ±1 standard deviation)

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