Research Papers: Applications

A New Approach for Fatigue Damage Modeling of Subsurface-Initiated Spalling in Large Rolling Contacts

[+] Author and Article Information
Aditya A. Walvekar

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: awalveka@purdue.edu

Neil Paulson

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: npaulson@purdue.edu

Farshid Sadeghi

Fellow ASME
Cummins Distinguished Professor
of Mechanical Engineering,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: sadeghi@purdue.edu

Nick Weinzapfel

Engine Components and Chassis Systems,
Schaeffler Group USA, Inc.,
Troy, MI 48083
e-mail: nick.weinzapfel@schaeffler.com

Martin Correns

Rolling Bearing Fundamentals,
Schaeffler Technologies GmbH & Co. KG,
Industriestraße 1-3,
Herzogenaurach 91074, Germany,
e-mail: corremnt@schaeffler.com

Markus Dinkel

Materials Development,
Schaeffler Technologies GmbH & Co. KG,
Georg-Schäfer-Straße 30,
Schweinfurt 97421, Germany
e-mail: markus.dinkel@schaeffler.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received September 1, 2015; final manuscript received February 8, 2016; published online July 14, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Dong Zhu.

J. Tribol 139(1), 011101 (Jul 14, 2016) (15 pages) Paper No: TRIB-15-1324; doi: 10.1115/1.4033054 History: Received September 01, 2015; Revised February 08, 2016

Large bearings employed in wind turbine applications have half-contact widths that are usually greater than 1 mm. Previous numerical models developed to investigate rolling contact fatigue (RCF) require significant computational effort to study large rolling contacts. This work presents a new computationally efficient approach to investigate RCF life scatter and spall formation in large bearings. The modeling approach incorporates damage mechanics constitutive relations in the finite element (FE) model to capture fatigue damage. It utilizes Voronoi tessellation to account for variability occurring due to the randomness in the material microstructure. However, to make the model computationally efficient, a Delaunay triangle mesh was used in the FE model to compute stresses during a rolling contact pass. The stresses were then mapped onto the Voronoi domain to evaluate the fatigue damage that leads to the formation of surface spall. The Delaunay triangle mesh was dynamically refined around the damaged elements to capture the stress concentration accurately. The new approach was validated against previous numerical model for small rolling contacts. The scatter in the RCF lives and the progression of fatigue spalling for large bearings obtained from the model show good agreement with experimental results available in the open literature. The ratio of L10 lives for different sized bearings computed from the model correlates well with the formula derived from the basic life rating for radial roller bearing as per ISO 281. The model was then extended to study the effect of initial internal voids on RCF life. It was found that for the same initial void density, the L10 life decreases with the increase in the bearing size.

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Fig. 1

Random material microstructure generated using a Voronoi tessellation. The Voronoi cell boundaries represent the weak planes in the material microstructure.

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Fig. 2

Voronoi cell divided into Voronoi elements and stresses resolved along the grain boundaries

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Fig. 3

S–N curve for bearing steel AISI 52100 in completely reversed torsional fatigue [32]

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Fig. 4

Computational domain used in FE simulation

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Fig. 5

Comparison of number of elements in the Voronoi (a) and Delaunay (b) mesh for b = 100 μm and b = 400 μm

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Fig. 6

Flowchart for the procedure to couple Delaunay mesh with fatigue damage model

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Fig. 7

State of stress for the Delaunay mesh (a) obtained from FE simulation and stresses mapped onto the Voronoi mesh (b)

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Fig. 9

Remeshing procedure: Critically damaged Voronoi elements are shown in black and surrounding Voronoi elements are highlighted. (a) Delaunay mesh and (b) Voronoi mesh

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Fig. 10

Progression of the Delaunay mesh at various stages of simulation (b = 200 μm). The spall pattern is shown in black color. The Voronoi mesh is depicted in (I).

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Fig. 11

Weibull probability plots for (a) initiation and (b) final lives for different contact sizes

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Fig. 12

Relationship between L10 lives and size factor fs obtained from the model results and Eq.(23) derived from basic life rating for radial roller bearing as per ISO 281

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Fig. 13

Typical spall patterns obtained from the model for different contact sizes: (I) b = 100 μm, (II) b = 200 μm, (III) b = 400 μm, and (IV) b = 1000 μm

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Fig. 14

Experimentally observed spall patterns: (I) Tallian [36] and (II) Lou et al. [37]

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Fig. 15

Spalls obtained from the model by continuing the simulation after the first crack reaches the surface (b = 400 μm)

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Fig. 16

Types of initial voids randomly placed in the microstructure topology region. Elasticity modulus of highlighted elements is set to zero.

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Fig. 17

Weibull probability plots for final lives for different simulation conditions (b = 100 μm)

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Fig. 18

Typical spall pattern for randomly placed (a) small and (b) large initial void for b = 100 μm. The initial void is highlighted.

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Fig. 19

Examples of spalls obtained for different simulation condition. (a) Four small initial voids randomly placed in the domain with b = 400 μm and (b) four large initial voids randomly placed in the domain with b = 400 μm. The initial voids are highlighted.

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Fig. 20

Weibull probability plots for final lives for different contact sizes having same initial void density




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