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Research Papers: Applications

Tribological Behavior of Wheel–Rail Contact Under Different Contaminants Using Pin-On-Disk Methodology

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Khalladi

Laboratory of Materials
Engineering and Environment,
National Engineering School of Sfax (ENIS),
University of Sfax,
Sfax 3038, Tunisia
e-mail: khalladiabdou@gmail.com

K. Elleuch

Laboratory of Materials
Engineering and Environment,
National Engineering School of Sfax (ENIS),
University of Sfax,
Sfax 3038, Tunisia
e-mail: khaled.elleuch@enis.rnu.tn

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received October 23, 2015; final manuscript received January 20, 2016; published online July 20, 2016. Assoc. Editor: George K. Nikas.

J. Tribol 139(1), 011102 (Jul 20, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: TRIB-15-1381; doi: 10.1115/1.4033051 History: Received October 23, 2015; Revised January 20, 2016

The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of contaminants on the tribological behavior of wheel–rail contact. Sand, phosphate, sulfur, and cement were the studied contaminants identified after a Tunisian railway expertise. All friction tests under different contaminants were conducted using pin-on-disk machine, maintaining the same sliding velocity and Hertzian pressure, respectively, at 0.1 m/s and 1000 MPa. All results were compared with reference of two configuration contacts: wheel tread-rail head (clean dry condition) and wheel flange-rail gauge (clean lubricated condition). The main findings of this study could be listed as follows. First, with reference to clean and dry condition tests, sand and cement showed a higher adhesion than phosphate and sulfur. Second, all contaminants increased the adhesion coefficient with reference to clean and lubricated conditions. Third, sulfur generated the lowest energy-wear coefficient yielding a mild wear. Fourth, sand, cement, and phosphate generated a higher energy-wear coefficient yielding an abrasive wear. Finally, the highest energy-wear coefficient was obtained with sand.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Illustrations of the contaminants: (a) sand invading the railway, (b) sulfur covering the railway crossing the factory of Tunisian Chemical Group (GCT), (c) agglomerations of mixtures of spilled oil and contaminants within the area of the Mechanical Maintenance Workshop of SNCFT, and (d) a thin layer of lubricant-contaminants mixture on the active surface of the wheels

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Fig. 2

Illustration of the damage brought to the interface surfaces: (a) wear of the wheel and (b) wear of the rail

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Fig. 3

Sample characterization: (a) location of the sample on the rail and (b) dimensions of the sample in mm

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Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of pin-on-disk machine

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Fig. 5

Test conditions: (a) test under clean and lubricated condition and (b) test under phosphate contaminant

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Fig. 7

Friction curves under various test conditions

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Fig. 8

Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses of the disks inside of the wear track: (a) under clean and dry condition, (b) under sand condition, (c) under phosphate condition, and (d) under cement condition

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Fig. 10

Morphology of the third body of the top of the disks surfaces: (a) clean and dry condition, (b) sand condition, (c) sulfur condition, (d) phosphate condition, and (e) cement condition

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Fig. 9

Typical wear scar for pin samples after tests under different conditions: (a) clean and dry condition, (b) clean and lubricated condition, (c) sand condition, (d) sulfur condition, (e) phosphate condition, and (f) cement condition

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Fig. 11

Friction coefficient of wheel/rail contact under various conditions

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Fig. 12

Photos of pins and disks after tribological tests under different conditions

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Fig. 13

Wear volume against dissipated energy for wheel/rail contact under various tests

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Fig. 14

Energy-wear coefficient α  of pins under various conditions

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Map 1

Railway Network in the south of Tunisia

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