With a subscale rolling-sliding apparatus, the objective of this study is to explore the adhesion and rolling contact fatigue characteristics of wheel/rail rollers with sanding under water condition. Sanding improves adhesion coefficient but aggravates the surface damage of wheel and rail materials. With the particle diameter and feed rate increasing, the adhesion coefficient is further improved. However, the surface damage (spalling and pits) becomes severer as well as the surface roughness. Note that pitting is a special damage type when sanding is used to improve the adhesion. Big pits and fatigue cracks appear on subsurface under larger particle diameter and feed rate conditions. Severe cracks initiate from big pits and develop into material to a depth, which results in bulk material breaking.