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Research Papers: Other (Seals, Manufacturing)

Effects of Particle Loading and Particle Size on Tribological Properties of Biochar Particulate Reinforced Polymer Composites

[+] Author and Article Information
S. Richard

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Dr. Sivanthi Aditanar College of Engineering,
Tiruchendur 628215, Tamil Nadu, India
e-mail: iamrichi@yahoo.com

J. Selwin Rajadurai

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Government College of Engineering,
Tirunelveli 627007, Tamil Nadu, India
e-mail: j_selwinrajadurai@yahoo.co.in

V. Manikandan

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Kalasalingam University,
Krishnankoil 626190, Tamil Nadu, India
e-mail: vaimanikandan@yahoo.com

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received November 6, 2015; final manuscript received February 2, 2016; published online July 20, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Mircea Teodorescu.

J. Tribol 139(1), 012202 (Jul 20, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: TRIB-15-1397; doi: 10.1115/1.4033131 History: Received November 06, 2015; Revised February 02, 2016

In this research work, pulverized biochar obtained by the pyrolysis of rice husk is used as particulate reinforcement in unsaturated polyester matrix. The effects of the particle loading and particle size on tribological properties of the particulate composites were investigated. The average size of biochar particles obtained through pulverizing using ball-mill varied from 510 nm to 45 nm while milling for a duration ranging from 6 hrs to 30 hrs. The particle loading in the composite was varied from 0.5 wt.% to 2.5 wt.%. It was observed that the particle size and particle content played a vital role in the tribological properties of the composites. The specific wear rate of the specimen having particle loading of 2.5 wt.% with 45 nm particle size exhibited a decrease of 56.36% upon comparing with the specific wear rate of cured pure resin. The coefficient of friction of the same sample decreased by 6.42% when compared to that of a cured pure resin. The biochar particles were subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and atomic force microscope analysis for characterization. Morphological studies were performed on the worn surfaces by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscopy.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Rice husk and (b) Biochar

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Fig. 2

Biochar particle after ball milling

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Fig. 3

Particle size distribution of biochar milled for 12 hrs

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Fig. 4

Variation of mean particle size with varying milling hours

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Fig. 5

One of the fabricated samples of Biochar reinforced composite

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Fig. 7

SEM image of biochar particles after milling

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Fig. 8

Topography of the biochar particulate

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Fig. 9

FT-IR spectroscopy of biochar particles

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Fig. 10

XRD pattern of biochar particles

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Fig. 11

Void fraction of different composite specimen

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Fig. 12

Variation of specific wear rate with biochar wt.% in composite specimen

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Fig. 13

Variation of coefficient of friction with biochar wt.% in composite specimen

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Fig. 14

SEM image of worn surface of clear polyester resin

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Fig. 15

SEM pictures of the worn surfaces of biochar particulate (510 nm) reinforced composites with particle loading of 0.5 wt.% (a) and 2.5 wt.% (b)

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Fig. 16

SEM pictures of the worn surfaces of biochar particulate (430 nm) reinforced composites with particle loading of 0.5 wt.% (a) and 2.5 wt.% (b)

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Fig. 17

SEM pictures of the worn surfaces of biochar particulate (230 nm) reinforced composites with particle loading of 0.5 wt.% (a) and 2.5 wt.% (b)

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Fig. 18

SEM pictures of the worn surfaces of biochar particulate (140 nm) reinforced composites with particle loading of 0.5 wt.% (a) and 2.5 wt.% (b)

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Fig. 19

SEM pictures of the worn surfaces of biochar particulate (45 nm) reinforced composites with particle loading of 0.5 wt.% (a) and 2.5 wt.% (b)

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Fig. 20

Optical micrographs of the worn surface of pure polyester resin

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Fig. 21

Optical micrographs of the worn surfaces of biochar particulate reinforced composite specimen A5 (a), B5 (b), C5 (c), D5 (d), and E5 (e)

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