0
Research Papers: Applications

Synergistic Erosion–Corrosion Behavior of X-65 Carbon Steel at Various Impingement Angles

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Pasha

School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
University of Tehran,
Tehran 14399-57131, Iran
e-mail: am.pasha@ut.ac.ir

H. M. Ghasemi

School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
University of Tehran,
Tehran 14399-57131, Iran
e-mail: hghasemi@ut.ac.ir

J. Neshati

Research Institute of Petroleum Industry,
Tehran 14857-33111, Iran
e-mail: neshatij@ripi.ir

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received August 8, 2015; final manuscript received March 18, 2016; published online August 16, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Daniel Nélias.

J. Tribol 139(1), 011105 (Aug 16, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: TRIB-15-1291; doi: 10.1115/1.4033336 History: Received August 08, 2015; Revised March 18, 2016

A slurry impingement rig containing 6 wt.% SiO2 particles was used to investigate synergistic erosion–corrosion behavior of X-65 carbon steel at various impingement angles. Maximum erosion–corrosion and erosion rates occurred at impingement angles of about 25 deg and 40–55 deg, respectively. The synergy value highly depended on the impingement angle. The formation of patches of porous corrosion product followed by the formation of corrosion pits led to a positive synergy under impingement angle of 25 deg. At higher impingement angles, the absence of pits probably due to the formation of a more durable tribocorrosion layer resulted in a negative synergy.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Hodgkiess, T. , Neville, A. , and Shrestha, S. , 1999, “ Electrochemical and Mechanical Interactions During Erosion-Corrosion of a High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel Coating and a Stainless Steel,” Wear, 233–235, pp. 623–634. [CrossRef]
Toro, A. , Sinatora, A. , Tanaka, D. K. , and Tschiptschin, A. P. , 2001, “ Corrosion-Erosion of Nitrogen Bearing Martensitic Stainless Steels in Seawater-Quartz Slurry,” Wear, 251, pp. 1257–1264. [CrossRef]
Neville, A. , Reyes, M. , and Xu, H. , 2002, “ Examining Corrosion Effects and Corrosion/Erosion Interactions on Metallic Materials in Aqueous Slurries,” Tribol. Int., 35(10), pp. 643–650. [CrossRef]
Lopez, D. , Falleiros, N. A. , and Tschiptschin, A. P. , 2007, “ Corrosion-Erosion Behavior of Austenitic and Martensitic High Nitrogen Stainless Steels,” Wear, 263, pp. 347–354. [CrossRef]
Bermudez, M. D. , and Carrion, F. J. , 2005, “ Erosion-Corrosion of Stainless Steels, Titanium, Tantalum and Zirconium,” Wear, 258, pp. 693–700. [CrossRef]
Berget, J. , Rogne, T. , and Bardal, E. , 2007, “ Erosion-Corrosion Properties of Different WC-Co-Cr Coatings Deposited by the HVOF Process-Influence of Metallic Matrix Composition and Spray Powder Size Distribution,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 201(18), pp. 7619–7625. [CrossRef]
Wood, R. J. K. , 2006, “ Review Erosion-Corrosion Interactions and Their Effect on Marine and Offshore Materials,” Wear, 261(9), pp. 1012–1023. [CrossRef]
Yao, Z. , Zheng, Y. , and Ke, W. , 1995, “ The Influence of Applied Potential on the Erosion-Corrosion Behavior of AISI321 Stainless Steel in Acidic Slurry Medium,” Wear, 186–187, pp. 568–572. [CrossRef]
Neville, A. , and Hodgkiess, T. , 1996, “ An Assessment of the Corrosion Behavior of High-Grade Alloys in Sea Water at Elevated Temperature and Under a High Velocity Impinging Flow,” Corros. Sci., 38(6), pp. 927–956. [CrossRef]
Hu, X. , and Neville, A. , 2005, “ The Electrochemical Response of Stainless Steels in Liquid-Solid Impingement,” Wear, 258, pp. 641–648. [CrossRef]
Meng, H. , Hu, X. , and Neville, A. , 2007, “ A Systematic Erosion-Corrosion Study of Two Stainless Steels in Marine Conditions Via Experimental Design,” Wear 263, pp. 355–362. [CrossRef]
Wood, R. J. K. , Wharton, J. A. , Speyer, A. J. , and Tan, K. S. , 2002, “ Investigation of Erosion-Corrosion Processes Using Electrochemical Noise Measurement,” Tribol. Int., 35(10), pp. 631–641. [CrossRef]
Wang, H. W. , and Stack, M. M. , 2000, “ The Erosive Wear of Mild and Stainless Steels Under Controlled Corrosion in Alkaline Slurries Containing Alumina Particles,” J. Mater. Sci., 35(21), pp. 5263–5273. [CrossRef]
Ping, L. , Qi-zhou, C. , Bo-kang, W. , and Xian-zhong, Z. , 2006, “ Effect of Aging Temperature on Erosion-Corrosion Behavior of 17-4PH Stainless Steels in Dilute Sulphuric Acid Slurry,” J. Iron Steel Res. Int., 13(5), pp. 73–78.
Stack, M. M. , and Pungwiwat, N. , 2004, “ Erosion-Corrosion Mapping of Fe in Aqueous Slurries: Some Views on a New Rationale for Defining the Erosion-Corrosion Interaction,” Wear, 256(5), pp. 565–576. [CrossRef]
Lopez, D. , Congote, J. P. , Cano, J. R. , Toro, A. , and Tschiptschin, A. P. , 2005, “ Effect of Particle Velocity and Impact Angle on the Corrosion-Erosion of AISI 304 and 420 Stainless Steels,” Wear, 259, pp. 118–124. [CrossRef]
Burstein, G. T. , and Sasaki, K. , 2000, “ Effect of Impact Angle on the Slurry Erosion-Corrosion of 304L Stainless Steel,” Wear, 240, pp. 80–94. [CrossRef]
Sasaki, K. , and Burstein, G. T. , 1996, “ The Generation of Surface Roughness During Slurry Erosion-Corrosion and Its Effect on the Pitting Potential,” Corros. Sci., 38(12), pp. 2111–2120. [CrossRef]
Stack, M. M. , Corlett, N. , and Zhou, S. , 1999, “ Impact Angle Effects on the Transition Boundaries of the Aqueous Erosion-Corrosion Map,” Wear, 225–229, pp. 190–198. [CrossRef]
Al-Bukhaiti, M. A. , Ahmed, S. M. , Badran, F. M. F. , and Emarab, K. M. , 2007, “ Effect of Impingement Angle on Slurry Erosion Behaviour and Mechanisms of 1017 Steel and High-Chromium White Cast Iron,” Wear, 262, pp. 1187–1198. [CrossRef]
Jana, B. D. , and Stack, M. M. , 2005, “ Modeling Impact Angle Effects on Erosion-Corrosion of Pure Metals: Construction of Materials Performance Maps,” Wear, 259, pp. 243–255. [CrossRef]
Wharton, J. A. , and Wood, R. J. K. , 2004, “ Influence of Flow Conditions on the Corrosion of AISI 304L Stainless Steel,” Wear, 256(5), pp. 525–536. [CrossRef]
Yu, B. , and Li, D. Y. , 2013, “ Effects of the Dissolved Oxygen and Slurry Velocity on Erosion-Corrosion of Carbon Steel in Aqueous Slurries With Carbon Dioxide and Silica Sand,” Wear, 302, pp. 1609–1641. [CrossRef]
Ukpai, J. I. , Barker, R. , Hu, X. , and Neville, A. , 2013, “ Exploring the Erosive Wear of X65 Carbon Steel by Acoustic Emission Method,” Wear, 301, pp. 370–382. [CrossRef]
Yang, Y. , and Cheng, Y. F. , 2012, “ Parametric Effects on the Erosion–Corrosion Rate and Mechanism of Carbon Steel Pipes in Oil Sands Slurry,” Wear, 276–277, pp. 141–148. [CrossRef]
Stack, M. M. , and Abdulrahman, G. H. , 2012, “ Mapping Erosion-Corrosion of Carbon Steel in Oil-Water Solutions: Effects of Velocity and Applied Potential,” Wear, 274–275, pp. 401–413. [CrossRef]
Stack, M. M. , and Abdulrahman, G. H. , 2010, “ Mapping Erosion-Corrosion of Carbon Steel in Oil Exploration Conditions: Some New Approaches to Characterizing Mechanisms and Synergies,” Tribol. Int., 43(7), pp. 1268–1277. [CrossRef]
Guo, H. X. , Lu, B. T. , and Luo, J. L. , 2005, “ Interaction of Mechanical and Electrochemical Factors in Erosion-Corrosion of Carbon Steel,” Electrochim. Acta, 51(2), pp. 315–323. [CrossRef]
ASTM G119, 2009, “ Standard Guide for Determining Synergism Between Wear and Corrosion,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Azarian, N. S. , Ghasemi, H. M. , and Monshi, M. R. , 2015, “ Synergistic Erosion and Corrosion Behavior of AA5052 Aluminum Alloy in 3.5 Wt% Nacl Solution Under Various Impingement Angles,” J. Bio. Tribo. Corros., 1(2), pp. 10–17. [CrossRef]
Abedini, M. , and Ghasemi, H. M. , 2014, “ Synergistic Erosion–Corrosion Behavior of Al–Brass Alloy at Various Impingement Angles,” Wear, 319, pp. 49–55. [CrossRef]
ASTM G 102, 2004, “ Standard Practice for Calculation of Corrosion Rates and Related Information From Electrochemical Measurements,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
ASTM G 1, 2003, “ Standard Practice for Preparing, Cleaning, and Evaluating Corrosion Test Specimens,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Stachowiak, G. W. , and Batchelor, A. W. , 2005, Engineering Tribology, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK.
Hutchings, I. M. , 1992, Tribology: Friction and Wear of Engineering Materials, Edward Arnold, London.
McCafferty, E. , 2010, Introduction to Corrosion Science, Springer, New York.
Karrab, S. A. , Doheim, M. A. , Mohammed, M. S. , and Ahmed, S. M. , 2012, “ Investigation of the Ring Area Formed Around Cavitation Erosion Pits on the Surface of Carbon Steel,” Tribol. Lett., 45(3), pp. 437–444. [CrossRef]
Czichos, H. , 1978, Tribology: A System Approach to the Science and Technology of Friction, Lubrication and Wear, Elsevier, New York.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of the erosion–corrosion loop; 1: electro pump, 2: reference electrode in capillary, 3: counter electrode, 4: sample, 5: nozzle, 6: slurry entrance to the container, 7: potentiostat, and 8: exit valve

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Raw silica sand particles used for erosion–corrosion and pure erosion tests

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Erosion–corrosion (T) and pure erosion rates (W0) of X-65 carbon steel as a function of impingement angle in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution containing 6 wt.% SiO2 at a jet velocity of 6.5 m/s for 30 mins

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) SEM micrograph of the polished surface of the X-65 carbon steel before erosion–corrosion test, (b)–(e) SEM micrographs of eroded surface of X-65 carbon steel at different magnifications in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution containing 6 wt.% SiO2 at a jet velocity of 6.5 m/s, at impingement angle of 25 deg for 30 mins, and (f) in-lens micrograph of the regions where the corrosion product formed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Erosion–corrosion surfaces of X-65 carbon steel tested in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution containing 6 wt.% SiO2, at a jet velocity of 6.5 m/s for 30 mins at: (a) and (b) an impingement angle of 55 deg at different magnifications and (c) and (d) an impingement angle of 90 deg at different magnifications

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Eroded surfaces of X-65 carbon steel under cathodic protection (pure erosion) in 3.5wt.% NaCl solution containing 6 wt.% SiO2, at a jet velocity of 6.5 m/s for 30 mins: (a) and (b) at 25 deg, (c) and (d) at 55 deg, (e) and (f) at 90 deg impingement angles at different magnifications

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Oxygen content of eroded surfaces of X-65 carbon steel tested in various conditions. E-C and E indicate the erosion–corrosion and the pure erosion conditions, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Polarization curves for X-65 carbon steel tested in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution containing 6 wt.% SiO2, at a jet velocity of 6.5 m/s at various impingement angles. The polarization curves in stagnant and flow (i.e., 6.5 m/s) solution of 3.5 wt.% NaCl are also included.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Synergy value for X-65 carbon steel tested in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution containing 6 wt.% SiO2 at a jet velocity of 6.5 m/s for 30 mins

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Synergism parameters for X-65 carbon steel alloy tested in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution containing 6 wt.% SiO2 at a jet velocity of 6.5 m/s for 30 mins

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In