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Research Papers: Other (Seals, Manufacturing)

Analytical/Experimental Study of the Contribution of Individual Seals to Friction Force in Pneumatic Actuators

[+] Author and Article Information
Luigi Mazza

Department of Mechanical
and Aerospace Engineering-DIMEAS,
Politecnico di Torino,
Corso Duca Degli Abruzzi, 24,
Torino 10129, Italy
e-mail: luigi.mazza@polito.it

Guido Belforte

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering-DIMEAS,
Politecnico di Torino,
Corso Duca Degli Abruzzi, 24,
Torino 10129, Italy
e-mail: guido.belforte@polito

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received January 18, 2016; final manuscript received March 24, 2016; published online August 11, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Min Zou.

J. Tribol 139(2), 022202 (Aug 11, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: TRIB-16-1027; doi: 10.1115/1.4033365 History: Received January 18, 2016; Revised March 24, 2016

This paper presents an analytical model and its experimental validation for assessing friction forces in reciprocating seals for single and double rod pneumatic cylinders. The contributions of individual piston and rod seals are analyzed using a combination of analytical and experimental approaches. The former entails a friction force formulation based on a lumped parameter seal model, whereas the latter involves carrying out measurements on complete actuators. Selecting appropriate test conditions made it possible to analyze separately the contributions that individual seals make to the overall friction measured on complete actuators. Analysis results were validated by means of friction measurements on the actuators seals, which were tested individually in specific devices. The experimental results were interpreted on the basis of the proposed analytical formulation and confirmed its validity.

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References

Muller, H. K. , and Nau, B. S. , 1998, Fluid Sealing Technology: Principles and Applications, Marcel Dekker, New York.
Belforte, G. , D'Alfio, N. , and Raparelli, T. , 1989, “ Experimental Analysis of Friction Forces in Pneumatic Cylinders,” J. Fluid Control, 20(1), pp. 42–60.
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Belforte, G. , Manuello, A. , and Mazza, L. , 2013, “ Test Rig for Friction Force Measurements in Pneumatic Components and Seals,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part J, 227(1), pp. 43–59. [CrossRef]
Bhaumik, S. , Kumaraswamy, A. , and Guruprasad, S. , 2013, “ Design and Development of Test Rig for Investigation of Contact Mechanics Phenomena in Reciprocating Hydraulic Seals,” Procedia Eng., 64, pp. 835–843. [CrossRef]
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Achenbach, M. , 2002, “ Sealing-Friction Model,” 12th International Sealing Conference, Stuttgart, Germany, pp. 499–512.
Achenbach, M. , and Papatheodorou, T. , 2008, “ Modeling of Friction Phenomena in Pneumatic Cylinders,” 6th International Fluid Power Conference, Dresden, Germany, pp. 279–288.
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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Test rig schematics, and details of (b) piston seals friction device and (c) rod seals friction device

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Fig. 2

Lumped parameter model of a lip seal: (a) seal model, (b) free-body diagram of the lip, and (c) orientation of the piston seals

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Fig. 3

Friction force, single rod, and double rod actuators

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Fig. 4

Effect of pressure differential across the piston seals, single rod actuators

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Fig. 5

Friction force versus pressure differential across the piston, single rod actuators, test conditions III and II

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Fig. 6

Friction force versus pressure differential across the piston, single rod actuators, test conditions IV and I

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Fig. 7

Friction force of single piston seal and rod seal

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Fig. 8

Friction forces in pneumatic cylinder and seals (test conditions I–IV)

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Fig. 9

Friction forces in double piston seals (test condition III)

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Fig. 10

Friction forces in double piston seals (test conditions II and III)

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