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Research Papers: Lubricants

Synthesis, Characterization, and Tribological Studies of Calcium–Copper–Titanate Nanoparticles as a Biolubricant Additive

[+] Author and Article Information
Rajeev Nayan Gupta

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology
(Banaras Hindu University),
Varanasi 221005, India
e-mail: rajivnayangupta@gmail.com

A. P. Harsha

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology
(Banaras Hindu University),
Varanasi 221005, India
e-mails: harshaap@gmail.com;
apharsha.mec@itbhu.ac.in

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received November 7, 2015; final manuscript received May 11, 2016; published online August 11, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Satish V. Kailas.

J. Tribol 139(2), 021801 (Aug 11, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: TRIB-15-1400; doi: 10.1115/1.4033714 History: Received November 07, 2015; Revised May 11, 2016

In the present study, tribological properties of castor oil have been investigated with and/or without use of additives by using four-ball tester. In the base castor oil, calcium–copper–titanate nanoparticles (CCTO) and zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) were added in different concentrations (i.e., 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 w/v%) to study their individual effect on tribological performance. Tribological test results have shown that there is an improvement in the antiwear, extreme-pressure (EP) properties at 0.25 and 1.0 w/v% for both the additives, respectively. However, in the coefficient of friction (COF) test (incipient seizure load), an optimum concentration of 0.5 w/v% was observed for ZDDP additive, whereas CCTO nanoparticles have shown similar level of performance at all concentrations. The worn-out surfaces were analyzed by using different analytical tools.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Flowchart for synthesis of CCTO nanoparticles by sol–gel method

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Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of four-ball test rig

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Fig. 3

X-ray diffraction pattern of CCTO nanoparticles calcined at 800 °C for 6 hrs

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Fig. 4

Images of synthesized CCTO nanoparticles: (a) TEM, (b) SEM, and (c) the variations in nanoparticle size

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Fig. 5

EDS of synthesized CCTO nanoparticles

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Fig. 6

Wear scar variations with different oil compositions (CO: castor oil; 0.1CZ, 0.25CZ, 0.5CZ, and 1.0 CZ: castor oil with ZDDP in concentration of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 w/v%, respectively; and 0.1CC, 0.25CC, 0.5CC, and 1.0 CC: castor oil withCCTO nanoparticles in concentration of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 w/v%, respectively)

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Fig. 7

SEM images of worn surfaces of the steel balls: ((a) and (b)) castor oil, ((c) and (d)) castor oil with 0.25 w/v% concentration of ZDDP, and ((e) and (f)) castor oil with 0.25 w/v% concentration of CCTO ((a), (c), and (e) at 100× and (b), (d), and (f) at 2000×)

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Fig. 8

AFM images of worn surfaces of steel balls: ((a) and (b)) castor oil, ((c) and (d)) castor oil with 0.25 w/v% concentration of ZDDP, and ((e) and (f)) castor oil with 0.25 w/v% concentration of CCTO ((a), (c), and (e): line graphs and (b), (d), and (f): three-dimensional view of root-mean-square surface roughness (Rq and Sq))

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Fig. 12

Variations of COF showing (a) incipient seizure load and (b) effect of additive concentrations

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Fig. 11

Typical image of welded steel balls during EP test

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Fig. 10

Typical chemical elemental analysis of worn surfaces of steel balls with (a) ZDDP and (b) CCTO

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Fig. 9

Schematic diagram illustrates (a) the mechanism of nanoparticles acting as nanobearing and (b) mechanism of reduction in the real area of contact for spherical particles

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