Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Fiber-Surface Quality Enhancement to Improve the Performance Properties of Friction Materials

[+] Author and Article Information
N. Aranganathan

Industrial Tribology Machine Dynamics and
Maintenance Engineering Centre (ITMMEC)
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
New Delhi 110016, India

Bijwe Jayashree

Industrial Tribology Machine Dynamics and
Maintenance Engineering Centre (ITMMEC),
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
New Delhi 110016, India
e-mail: jbijwe@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received April 11, 2016; final manuscript received December 1, 2016; published online May 11, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Mircea Teodorescu.

J. Tribol 139(5), 051605 (May 11, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: TRIB-16-1125; doi: 10.1115/1.4035477 History: Received April 11, 2016; Revised December 01, 2016

Very smooth surface topography of CFs (CFs) and its chemical inertness have been a concern while selecting them for reinforcement in polymer composites. Such fibers do not show adequate fiber–matrix adhesion and hence do not contribute to enhance the property to the extent possible. Chemical treatment or sizing of fibers using proper coupling agents appears to be the only choice to deal with this problem. In the case of friction materials (FMs), hardly anything is reported on exploring the potential of few surface treatments of CFs, though CF is used as very efficient ingredient of FM. In this paper, two methods (one most primitive, i.e., nitric acid and second, most recent, i.e., nano-YbF3 particles) were selected to treat short CF and to develop FMs based on treated and untreated fibers for comparison. The studies revealed that the nanoparticles treatment proved most effective and enhanced almost all the performance properties of FMs.

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Fig. 1

SEM images of treated and untreated CFs. (a) and (b) for untreated fibers; (c) and (d) for HNO3-treated fibers; and (e) and (f) for YbF3-treated fibers.

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Fig. 2

SEM micrographs of YbF3-treated CFs showing (a) even dispersion of nanoparticles (NPs) in the bundle of CF filaments, (b) single filament of CF showing details of NPs sticking on the fiber surface, (c) higher magnification micrograph showing NPs adhering in the grooves on fibers, (d) SEM micrograph of surface subjected to EDAX analysis, (e) EDAX Dot mapping image of Ytterbium (Yb) atoms, (f) EDAX Dot mapping image of fluoride (F) atoms, (g) EDAX Dot mapping image of carbon atoms (C), (h) EDAX curve showing presence of ytterbium (Yb), fluoride (F), and carbon atoms confirming the treatment of CFs with YbF3 particles

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Fig. 3

Raman shift of untreated and treated CFs

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Fig. 4

Sketch indicating pad against disk-braking in passenger car

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Fig. 5

Sensitivity of μ to load and speed for selected FMs

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Fig. 6

Speed-spread characteristics of FMs at mild and severe speed conditions

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Fig. 7

Comparative fade performance of selected FMs

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Fig. 8

Comparative recovery performance of selected FMs

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Fig. 9

Derived friction performance parameters after high-temperature (fade) test

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Fig. 10

Wear performance of developed FMs in (a) percentage weight loss and (b) wear volume

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Fig. 11

SEM micrographs of fiber bunches in FMs

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Fig. 12

SEM images of worn surfaces of brake pads arranged in the order of increasing wear resistance. (a) and (b) CH, (c) and (d) for CU, and (e) and (f) for CY.




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