Research Papers: Friction and Wear

On Microstructure and Wear Behavior of Microwave Processed Composite Clad

[+] Author and Article Information
Sarbjeet Kaushal

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Thapar University,
Patiala 147001, India
e-mail: sarbjeet.kaushal@thapar.edu

Dheeraj Gupta

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Thapar University,
Patiala 147001, India
e-mail: dheeraj.gupta@thapar.edu

Hiralal Bhowmick

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Thapar University,
Patiala 147001, India
e-mail: hiralal.bhowmick@thapar.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received December 9, 2016; final manuscript received January 15, 2017; published online May 26, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Sinan Muftu.

J. Tribol 139(6), 061602 (May 26, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: TRIB-16-1379; doi: 10.1115/1.4035844 History: Received December 09, 2016; Revised January 15, 2017

In the present study, wear resistance composite cladding of Ni-based + 20% WC8Co (wt. %) was developed on SS-304 substrate using domestic microwave oven at 2.45 GHz and 900 W. The clad was developed within 300 s of microwave exposure using microwave hybrid heating (MHH) technique. The clad was characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Vicker’s microhardness, and dry sliding wear test. Microstructure study revealed that the clad of approximately 1.25 mm thickness was developed by partial mutual diffusion with substrate. It was observed that the developed clad was free from visible interfacial cracks with significantly less porosity (∼1.2%). XRD patterns of the clad confirmed the presence of Cr23C6, NiSi, and NiCr phases that eventually contributed to the enhancement in clad microhardness. Vicker’s microhardness of the processed clad surface was found to be 840 ± 20 HV, which was four times that of SS-304 substrate. In case of clad surface, wear mainly occurs due to debonding of carbide particles from the matrix, while plastic deformation and strong abrasion are responsible for the removal of material from SS-304 substrate.

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Fig. 1

SEM image shows morphology of: (a) Ni-based powder and (b) WC8Co powder

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Fig. 2

A typical XRD spectrum of: (a) nickel-based EWAC powder and (b) WC8Co powder

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Fig. 3

(a) Actual clad formation inside microwave applicator and (b) schematic mechanism of clad formation

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Fig. 4

A typical XRD spectrum of the Ni-based + 20% WC8Co cladding (radiation: Cu Kα)

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Fig. 5

Microstructure image of clad shows: (a) typical back scattered electron micrograph of the transverse section of developed microwave clad and (b) enlarged view of the clad region

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Fig. 6

EDS analysis of substrate to clad surface: (a) at various points and (b) distribution of elements

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Fig. 7

Vicker’s microhardness distribution across a typical section of developed clad

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Fig. 8

Cumulative weight loss versus sliding distances graphs for various loads and sliding velocities for: (a) SS-304 and (b) microwave composite clad

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Fig. 9

Typical wear rate characteristics of: (a) SS-304 and (b) microwave clad at 1.5 kg load

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Fig. 10

SEM images of typical worn clad surfaces at: (a) 0.5 m/s, 1.5 kg, 2000 m, (b) EDS spectra at mark location, (c) 1.0 m/s, 1.5 kg, 2000 m, (d) EDS spectra at mark location, (e) 1.5 m/s, 1.5 kg, 2000 m, and (f) EDS spectra at mark location

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Fig. 11

SEM images of typical worn SS-304 surfaces at: (a) 0.5 m/s, 1.5 kg, 2000 m, (b) 1 m/s, 1.5 kg, 2000 m, and (c) 1.5 m/s, 1.5 kg, 2000 m

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Fig. 12

(a) SEM image of wear debris of clad surface and (b) EDS analysis of wear debris



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