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Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Experimental Investigation of the Time Delay Between a Varying Applied Normal Force and the Resulting Friction Force

[+] Author and Article Information
Guangxiong Chen

State Key Laboratory of Traction Power,
Tribology Research Institute,
Southwest Jiaotong University,
Chengdu, Sichuan 610031, China
e-mail: chen_guangx@163.com

Xiaolu Cui

State Key Laboratory of Traction Power,
Tribology Research Institute,
Southwest Jiaotong University,
Chengdu, Sichuan 610031, China
e-mail: cui_xiaolu@foxmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received June 6, 2016; final manuscript received January 22, 2017; published online May 26, 2017. Editor: Michael Khonsari.

J. Tribol 139(5), 051607 (May 26, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: TRIB-16-1187; doi: 10.1115/1.4036168 History: Received June 06, 2016; Revised January 22, 2017

Recently, one of the present authors proposed a new model to explain the generation mechanism of brake squeal based on the time delay between a varying applied normal force and the resulting friction force. The present work conducts a series of experimental tests examining the behavior of this time delay using a special test apparatus. The test apparatus suppresses the effect of interference in the time delay owing to the excitation normal force to the greatest extent possible. Several calibration tests of the test apparatus are conducted to ensure the validity of the normal force and friction force measurements. The varying friction force is extracted from the overall friction force signal without phase distortion using a zero-phase filter. The test results demonstrate a time delay between the varying normal force and the resulting friction force under various testing parameters. The time delay is found to increase with increasing excitation frequency. The generation mechanism of the time delay is also discussed.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Test apparatus: (a) image of the test apparatus and (b) schematic of the test apparatus

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Fig. 2

Reconfigured test apparatus for calibrating the friction force: (a) image of the reconfigured test apparatus and (b) schematic of the reconfigured test apparatus

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Fig. 3

Reconfigured test apparatus for calibrating the normal excitation force: (a) image of the reconfigured test apparatus and (b) schematic of the reconfigured test apparatus

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Fig. 4

Phase calibration result of the friction force measurement with f = 2000 Hz: (a) measured forces and (b) scaled coefficient k = 2.5

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Fig. 5

Phase calibration result of the friction force measurement with f = 1000 Hz: (a) measured forces and (b) k = 2.5, follower force multiplied by −1

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Fig. 6

Phase calibration results of the friction force measurement: (a) f = 300 Hz, k = 2.5, (b) f = 500 Hz, k = 3.8, (c) f = 600 Hz, k = 5.6, and (d) f = 700 Hz, k = 6.3

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Fig. 7

Phase calibration results of the normal force measurement: (a) f = 300 Hz, k = 1.5, (b) f = 500 Hz, k = 4.2, (c) f = 600 Hz, k = 4.6, (d) f = 700 Hz, k = 1.5, and (e) f = 2000 Hz

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Fig. 8

Time history of the excitation force and friction force, f = 500 Hz

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Fig. 9

Time history of the static and dynamic friction forces, f = 500 Hz

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Fig. 10

Effect of interference signal (y2) on the time delay of the dynamic friction force signal (y1) for f = 300 Hz

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Fig. 11

Dynamic normal force and friction force at a normal excitation frequency of 300 Hz: (a) in the compression stroke and (b) in the tension stroke

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Fig. 12

Dynamic normal force and friction force at a normal excitation frequency of 500 Hz: (a) in the compression stroke and (b) in the tension stroke

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Fig. 13

Variation in the time delay with respect the normal excitation force frequency

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