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Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Solution to Inverse Problem of Manufacturing by Surface Modification With Controllable Surface Integrity Correlated to Performance: A Case Study of Thermally Sprayed Coatings for Wear Performance

[+] Author and Article Information
X. P. Zhu, P. C. Du, Y. Meng

Surface Engineering Laboratory,
School of Materials Science and Engineering,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China

M. K. Lei

Surface Engineering Laboratory,
School of Materials Science and Engineering,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China
e-mail: surfeng@dlut.edu.cn

D. M. Guo

Key Laboratory for Precision and
Non-Traditional Machining of the
Ministry of Education,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received December 11, 2016; final manuscript received February 14, 2017; published online June 14, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Dae-Eun Kim.

J. Tribol 139(6), 061604 (Jun 14, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: TRIB-16-1380; doi: 10.1115/1.4036184 History: Received December 11, 2016; Revised February 14, 2017

Inverse problem of manufacturing is studied under a framework of high performance manufacturing of components with functional surface layer, where controllable generation of surface integrity is emphasized due to its pivotal role determining final performance. Surface modification techniques capable of controlling surface integrity are utilized to verify such a framework of manufacturing, by which the surface integrity desired for a high performance can be more effectively achieved as reducing the material and geometry constraints of manufacturing otherwise unobtainable during conventional machining processes. Here, thermal spraying of WC–Ni coatings is employed to coat stainless steel components for water-lubricated wear applications, on which a strategy for direct problem from process to performance is implemented with surface integrity adjustable through spray angle and inert N2 shielding. Subsequently, multiple surface integrity parameters can be evaluated to identify the major ones responsible for wear performance by elucidating the wear mechanism, involving surface features (coating porosity and WC phase retention) and surface characteristics (microhardness, elastic modulus, and toughness). The surface features predominantly determine tribological behaviors of coatings in combination with the surface characteristics that are intrinsically associated with the surface features. Consequently, the spray process with improved N2 shielding is designed according to the desired surface integrity parameters for higher wear resistance. It is demonstrated that the correlations from processes to performance could be fully understood and established via controllable surface integrity, facilitating solution to inverse problem of manufacturing, i.e., realization of a material and geometry integrated manufacturing.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 7

Effect of WC phase retention on microhardness for WC–10Ni coatings deposited at the different spray angles in air and with N2 shielding in open air: (a) HV2.94N and (b) HV0.49N

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Fig. 6

Effect of porosity on microhardness for WC–10Ni coatings deposited at the different spray angles in air and with N2 shielding in open air: (a) 2.94 N and (b) 0.49 N

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Fig. 5

WC retention ratio in WC–10Ni coatings deposited at the different spray angles in air and with N2 shielding in open air, respectively

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Fig. 4

Porosity of WC–10Ni coatings deposited at the different spray angles in air and with N2 shielding in open air, respectively

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Fig. 3

Microstructure of WC–10Ni coatings deposited at the different spray angles where a denotes sprayed in air, b denotes sprayed with N2 shielding in open air

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Fig. 2

Spray scheme of HVOF process with N2 shielding gas and varying incident angle: (a) N2 introduction with four nozzles to coating deposition region, (b) spray angle geometry, and (c) photos of HVOF systems and N2 shielding setup in open air

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Fig. 1

High performance manufacturing framework for components with functional surface layer: a strategy of direct problem is incorporated for solving the inverse problem of manufacturing with mechanism-relevant correlations from processes to performance

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Fig. 8

Effect of porosity on elastic modulus and toughness of WC–10Ni coatings deposited at the different spray angles with/without N2 shielding in open air scheme: (a) elastic modulus and (b) indentation fracture toughness

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Fig. 9

Effect of WC phase retention on elastic modulus and toughness of WC–10Ni coatings deposited at the different spray angles in air and with N2 shielding in open air: (a) elastic modulus and (b) indentation fracture toughness

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Fig. 10

Friction coefficients of WC–10Ni coatings deposited at the different spray angles: (a) spray in air and (b) spray with N2 shielding in open air

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Fig. 11

Surface morphologies of wear tracks on WC–10Ni coatings deposited at the different spray angles, where a denotes sprayed in air and b denotes sprayed with N2 shielding in open air

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Fig. 12

Effect of microhardness on specific wear rate of WC–10Ni coatings deposited at the different spray angles: (a) HV2.94N and (b) HV0.49N

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Fig. 13

Effect of elastic modulus and toughness on specific wear rate of WC–10Ni coatings deposited at the different spray angles: (a) elastic modulus and (b) indentation toughness

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Fig. 14

Optimization of HVOF process with N2 shielding in a casing attachment toward a higher wear performance requirement of WC–Ni coated stainless steel

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Fig. 15

Effect of porosity and WC retention on microhardness of WC–10Ni coatings deposited at the different spray angles by optimized spray process with N2 shielding in a casing attachment as compared to sprayed in air

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Fig. 20

Surface morphologies before and after wear test of WC–10Ni coatings deposited at the different spray angles with optimized spray process with N2 shielding in a casing attachment

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Fig. 21

Specific wear rates of WC–10Ni coatings deposited at the different spray angles using optimized spray process with N2 shielding in a casing attachment in comparison with those deposited in air

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Fig. 16

Effect of porosity on elastic modulus and toughness of WC–10Ni coatings deposited at the different spray angles by optimized spray process with N2 shielding in a casing attachment as compared to sprayed in air

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Fig. 17

Effect of WC retention on elastic modulus and toughness of WC–10Ni coatings deposited at the different spray angles by optimized spray process with N2 shielding in a casing attachment as compared to sprayed in air

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Fig. 18

Friction coefficients of WC–10Ni coatings deposited at the different spray angles with improved spray process with N2 shielding in a casing attachment

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Fig. 19

A summary of the friction coefficients during running-in stage and steady stage for all the three types of WC–Ni coatings, i.e., sprayed in air, with N2 shielding in casing or in open air: with respect to (a) spray angle and (b) porosity

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