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Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Tribological Characterization of Hypereutectic Al–25Si Alloy Under Dry and Lubricated Sliding Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Parveen Kumar

Tribology Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National Institute of Technology,
Srinagar 190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India

M. F. Wani

Tribology Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National Institute of Technology,
Srinagar 190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India
e-mail: mfwani@nitsri.net

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received January 11, 2017; final manuscript received May 3, 2017; published online July 21, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Dae-Eun Kim.

J. Tribol 140(1), 011603 (Jul 21, 2017) (19 pages) Paper No: TRIB-17-1011; doi: 10.1115/1.4036918 History: Received January 11, 2017; Revised May 03, 2017

Friction and wear properties of hypereutectic Al–25Si alloy were studied under dry and lubricated sliding conditions. Hypereutectic Al–25Si alloys were prepared by rapid solidification process (RSP) under the T6 condition. Experimental studies were conducted using a ball on disk type tribometer. The effect of the sliding distance and normal load on the friction and wear were investigated. The coefficient of friction (COF) remained stable with an increase in the sliding distance (250–1500 m) and decreased with an increase in the normal load (10–50 N), whereas the wear rate decreased with an increase in the sliding distance, and increased with the increase in the normal load up to 40 N and then attained a steady-state value under dry and lubricated sliding conditions. The improvements in COF and wear rate were mainly attributed to the morphology, size, and distribution of hypereutectic Si particles due to its fabrication process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), optical microscopy, and three-dimensional (3D)-surface profilometer were used for characterization of the wear tracks. The dominant wear mechanisms for a hypereutectic Al–25Si alloy were adhesive wear, abrasive wear, and plastic deformation.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Universal tribometer with reciprocating test setup and (b) schematic of reciprocating test setup: (1) disk sample, (2) clamp for disk sample, (3) ball specimen, (4) ball holder, (5) electromagnetic reciprocating drive, (6) load actuator, (7) loading arm, (8) piezoelectric sensor, (9) supporting frame, (10) X–Y moving platform, (11) emergency push button, and (12) control panel

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Fig. 2

(a) Optical micrograph, (b) SEM micrograph, and (c) EDS analysis of fresh hypereutectic Al–25Si alloy

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Fig. 3

Hardness of hypereutectic Al–25Si alloy: (a) HV versus indention load and (b) HV versus dwell time

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Fig. 4

COF versus sliding distance for hypereutectic Al–25Si alloy/steel ball

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Fig. 5

COF versus normal load for hypereutectic Al–25Si alloy/steel ball

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Fig. 6

Hypereutectic Al–25Si alloy/steel ball at a constant load of 20 N with 30 Hz frequency: (a) wear volume versus sliding distance and (b) wear rate versus sliding distance

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Fig. 7

Wear rate versus normal load for the hypereutectic Al–25Si alloy/steel ball

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Fig. 8

SEM and corresponding EDS analyses of AISI steel ball at 20 N load and 30 Hz frequency after 1500 m sliding distance under the dry sliding condition

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Fig. 9

SEM micrograph and corresponding EDS spectrum at three different points for the hypereutectic Al–25Si alloy disk at 20 N load and 30 Hz frequency after 1500 m sliding distance under the SAE20W50 oil lubricated sliding condition

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Fig. 10

SEM and corresponding EDS analyses of AISI steel ball at 20 N load and 30 Hz frequency after 1500 m sliding distance under the lubricated sliding condition

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Fig. 11

SEM and corresponding EDS analyses of AISI steel ball at 10 N load and 30 Hz frequency under the dry sliding condition

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Fig. 12

SEM micrograph and corresponding EDS spectrum at three different points for hypereutectic Al–25Si alloy disk at 20 N load and 30 Hz frequency after 1500 m sliding distance under the dry sliding condition

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Fig. 13

Optical micrographs of wear tracks of the hypereutectic Al–25Si alloy at different sliding distances and a constant load of 20 N under the dry sliding condition: (a) after 250 m, (b) after 500 m, (c) after 750 m, (d) after 1000 m, (e) after 1250 m, and (f) after 1500 m

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Fig. 14

Optical micrographs of wear tracks of the hypereutectic Al–25Si alloy at different sliding distances at a constant load of 20 N under lubricated sliding condition: (a) after 250 m, (b) after 500 m, (c) after 750 m, (d) after 1000 m, (e) after 1250 m, and (f) after 1500 m

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Fig. 15

Three-dimensional-profilometry image and surface texture of wear tracks of the hypereutectic Al–25Si alloy at different sliding distances at a constant load of 20 N under the dry sliding condition: (a) after 250 m, (b) after 500 m, (c) after 750 m, (d) after 1000 m, (e) after 1250 m, and (f) 1500 m

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Fig. 16

Three-dimensional-profilometry image and surface texture of wear tracks of the hypereutectic Al–25Si alloy at different sliding distances at a constant load of 20 N under the lubricated sliding condition: (a) after 250 m, (b) after 500 m, (c) after 750 m, (d) after 1000 m, (e) after 1250 m, and (f) 1500 m

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Fig. 17

Hypereutectic Al–25Si alloy disk at 10 N load and 30 Hz frequency under the dry sliding condition: (a) optical micrograph, (b) SEM micrograph, and (c) EDS spectrum

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Fig. 18

Three-dimensional-profilometry image and surface texture of wear tracks of the hypereutectic Al–25Si alloy at 30 Hz frequency and different loads under the dry sliding condition: (a) 10 N and (b) 50 N

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Fig. 19

Hypereutectic Al–25Si alloy disk at 20 N load and 30 Hz frequency under the dry sliding condition: (a) optical micrograph, (b) SEM micrograph, and (c) EDS spectrum

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Fig. 20

Hypereutectic Al–25Si alloy disk at 50 N load and 30 Hz frequency under the dry sliding condition: (a) optical micrograph, (b) SEM micrograph, and (c) EDS spectrum

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Fig. 21

Hypereutectic Al–25Si alloy disk at 10 N load and 30 Hz frequency under the SAE20W50 engine oil lubricated sliding condition: (a) optical micrograph, (b) SEM micrograph, and (c) EDS spectrum

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Fig. 22

Three-dimensional-profilometry image and surface texture of wear tracks for the hypereutectic Al–25Si alloy at different loads under the lubricated sliding condition: (a) 10 N, (b) 20 N, and (c) 50 N

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Fig. 23

Hypereutectic Al–25Si alloy disk at 20 N load and 30 Hz frequency under SAE20W50 oil lubricated sliding condition: (a) optical micrograph and (b) SEM micrograph and corresponding EDS spectrum at four different points

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Fig. 24

Hypereutectic Al–25Si alloy disk at 50 N load and 30 Hz frequency under the SAE20W50 oil lubricated sliding condition: (a) optical micrograph and (b) SEM micrograph and corresponding EDS spectrum at two different points

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