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Research Papers: Applications

Image Acquisition and Image Processing Algorithm for Movement Analysis of Bearings' Rolling Elements

[+] Author and Article Information
Eberhard Abele

Professor
Institute of Production Management,
Technology and Machine Tools,
Technical University of Darmstadt,
Otto-Berndt Straße 2,
Darmstadt 64287, Germany
e-mail: info@ptw.tu-darmstadt.de

Lars Holland

Institute of Production Management,
Technology and Machine Tools,
Technical University of Darmstadt,
Otto-Berndt Straße 2,
Darmstadt 64287, Germany
e-mail: holland@ptw.tu-darmstadt.de

Philipp Hönig

Institute of Production Management,
Technology and Machine Tools,
Technical University of Darmstadt,
Otto-Berndt Straße 2,
Darmstadt 64287, Germany
e-mail: info@ptw.tu-darmstadt.de

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received August 18, 2016; final manuscript received April 22, 2017; published online August 2, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Xiaolan Ai.

J. Tribol 140(1), 011103 (Aug 02, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: TRIB-16-1266; doi: 10.1115/1.4037066 History: Received August 18, 2016; Revised April 22, 2017

Movement analyses of bearings with regard to stable and unstable motion behavior typically investigate the cage whirl. However, some experimental and simulation-based studies exist that analyze the movements of the rolling elements. The majority of these investigations focus on lower shaft speeds. This paper presents an image-based approach for investigating the rolling element motions under high-speed operation condition. A new evaluation algorithm is presented and its suitability is verified first by generic images and afterward by experiments on cylindrical roller bearings.

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References

Gupta, P. , 1984, Advanced Dynamics of Rolling Elements, Springer-Verlag, New York. [CrossRef]
Ghaisas, N. , Wassgren, C. R. , and Sadeghi, F. , 2004, “ Cage Instabilities in Cylindrical Roller Bearings,” ASME J. Tribol., 126(4), pp. 681–689. [CrossRef]
Sakaguchi, T. , and Ueno, K. , 2004, “ Dynamic Analysis of Cage Behavior in a Cylindrical Roller Bearing,” NTN Corporation, Osaka, Japan, NTN Technical Review No. 71. http://www.ntnglobal.com/en/products/review/pdf/NTN_TR71_en_P008.pdf
Gupta, P. , 1991, “ Modeling of Instabilities Induced by Cage Clearances in Cylindrical Roller Bearings,” Tribol. Trans., 34(1), pp. 1–8. [CrossRef]
Gupta, P. , 1990, “ On the Frictional Instabilities in a Cylindrical Roller Bearing,” Tribol. Trans., 33(3), pp. 395–401. [CrossRef]
Scherb, B. J. , and Zech, J. , 2001, “ A Study on the Smearing and Slip Behaviour of Radial Cylindrical Roller Bearings,” Sonderdruck Schriftenreihe der Georg-Simon-Ohm-Fachhochschule Nürnberg Nr.5, Georg-Simon-Ohm-Fachhochschule, Nürnberg, Germany, accessed Mar. 14, 2016, https://opus4.kobv.de/opus4-ohm/frontdoor/index/index/docId/58
Herkert, B. , 1972, “ Bestimmung des Verschleißes und der Kinematik Schnellaufender Wälzlager mit Hilfe Radioaktiver Isotope,” Doctoral thesis, University Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany.
Harris, T. A. , 1966, “ An Analytical Method to Predict Skidding in High Speed Roller Bearings,” ASLE Trans., 9(3), pp. 229–241. [CrossRef]
Shevchenko, R. P. , and Bolan, P. , 1957, “ A Visual Study of Ball Motion in a High-Speed Thrust Bearing,” SAE Paper No. 570244.
Higginson, G. R. , 1967, “ Report 7: Measurement of Roller Speed in Roller Bearings,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 182(7), pp. 62–63.
Kingsbury, E. P. , 1968, “ Ball Motion in Angular Contact Bearings,” Wear, 11(1), pp. 41–50. [CrossRef]
Helfert, M. , Ernst, M. , Aeschlimann, B. , and Nordmann, R. , 2006, “ High-Speed Video Analysis of Rotor-Retainer-Bearing-Contacts Due to Failure of Active Magnetic Bearings,” Tenth International Symposium on Magnetic Bearings (ISMB), Martigny, Switzerland, Aug. 26–29, pp. 1–6. http://tubiblio.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/58906/
Mirzaie, S. , Fahlbusch, T. , and Reithmeier, E. , 2008, “ Experimental Slip Measurement of Roller Bearings,” Second Ph.D. Conference AI4IA, Hanover, Germany, May 14–15, pp. 1–5.
Mirzaie, S. , 2012, “ Entwicklung und Erprobung der Bildderotatormesstechnik am Beispiel der Schlupfmessung von Wälzlagern,” Doctoral thesis, Leibniz University of Hanover, Hanover, Germany.
Abele, E. , Holland, L. , and Nehrbass, A. , 2016, “ Image Acquisition and Image Processing Algorithms for Movement Analysis of Bearing Cages,” ASME J. Tribol., 138(2), p. 021105.

Figures

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Fig. 1

Speed zones in a radial bearing (a) and rotational speed characteristics of a single rolling element (b) [5]

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Fig. 2

Schematic test rig setup for derotating prism analysis [13]

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Fig. 5

Image evaluation procedure

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Fig. 6

Conventional edge detection

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Fig. 7

Scanning procedure for grayscale leaps

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Fig. 8

Results grayscale gradient

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Fig. 9

Edge detection generic image: (a) detected edge, (b) magnification, and (c) weighting

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Fig. 10

Edge detection real image

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Fig. 11

Determination of cage edge

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Fig. 12

Deviation of values in real, nonoperating bearing images

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Fig. 13

Generic image with evenly and deliberately spread rolling elements

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Fig. 14

Deviation of values in generic, rotating images

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Fig. 15

Exemplary deviation of values for one roller in a rotating bearing at 3000 rpm

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Fig. 16

Distance between two rollers at 3000 rpm

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Fig. 17

Distance between two rollers at 6000 rpm

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Fig. 18

Calculation of relative movements of rollers

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Fig. 19

Roller speed for one exemplary roller at 3000 rpm

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Fig. 20

Roller speed for one exemplary roller at 6000 rpm

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