Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Fabrication of Cu Surface Composite Reinforced by Ni Particles Via Friction Stir Processing: Microstructure and Tribology Behaviors

[+] Author and Article Information
Mohsen Pezeshkian

Advanced Materials Research Center,
Department of Materials Engineering,
Najafabad Branch,
Islamic Azad University,
Najafabad 8514143131, Iran
e-mail: r.m.pezeshkian@gmail.com

Iman Ebrahimzadeh

Advanced Materials Research Center,
Department of Materials Engineering,
Najafabad Branch,
Islamic Azad University,
Najafabad 8514143131, Iran
e-mail: i.ebrahimzadeh@pmt.iaun.ac.ir

Farhad Gharavi

Department of Materials Engineering,
Sirjan Branch,
Islamic Azad University,
Sirjan 78185187, Iran
e-mail: fgharavi@iausirjan.ac.ir

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received November 30, 2016; final manuscript received May 23, 2017; published online August 22, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Robert Wood.

J. Tribol 140(1), 011607 (Aug 22, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: TRIB-16-1375; doi: 10.1115/1.4037069 History: Received November 30, 2016; Revised May 23, 2017

In the present investigation, friction stir processing (FSP) was used to integrate Ni particles into the surface of copper in order to fabricate a surface composite. Determining an optimized percentage of Ni particles, different dimensions of grooves were machined into the Cu plates. Then, the specimens' grooves were filled by nickel reinforcement particles, and friction stir process was performed on the specimens with tool rotation speed of 800 rpm and traverse speed of 50 mm/min. Optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to evaluate the microstructure. Pin-on-disk test was performed to evaluate wear properties using pins manufactured from the FSPed zone. Also, Micromet-Buehler Vickers hardness tester was used to test the FSPed surfaces' microhardness. The results show that the best properties are obtained when using 2 × 2 mm groove. In this situation, microhardness and wear properties were improved as 40% and 60% compared to the substrate, respectively.

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Fig. 1

Optical micrograph of pure copper

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Fig. 2

SEM image of the as-received Ni powder

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Fig. 3

FSP tool pin profile

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Fig. 4

Schematic of FSP: (a) groove, (b) inserting Ni-powder into the groove, (c) closing surface of groove with the tool with no pin, and (d) FSPed Ni in Cu plate

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Fig. 5

Surface area of FSPed zone used in volume fraction equation (FSPed zone)

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Fig. 6

Schematic of the pin used in the wear test

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Fig. 7

Loading test graph to determine wear load test

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Fig. 8

Schematic of FSPed zones taken by an optical microscope

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Fig. 9

Tunnel defect shown in SEM micrograph

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Fig. 10

XRD analysis pattern of substrate, S0, S1, S2, and S3 specimens

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Fig. 11

Large scale of XRD pattern: (a) substrate and S0, and (b) S1, S2, and S3 specimens

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Fig. 12

Microhardness of the substrate, S0, S1, S2, and S3 specimens

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Fig. 13

SEM images of S2 specimen: (a) FSPed zone and (b) SZ

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Fig. 14

EDS result of S2 specimen: (a) point mode of the region marked Fig. 13(b) and (b) map mode of SZ of S2 specimen

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Fig. 15

Decreasing weight of specimens versus distance in the wear test

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Fig. 16

Worn surface of S2 specimen pin: (a) 25× and (b) 700×

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Fig. 17

Variation of friction coefficient in specimens per distance: (a) pure copper, (b) S0, (c) S1, (d) S2, and (e) S3



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