0
Research Papers: Friction and Wear

An Analytical Model of Mechanistic Wear of Polymers

[+] Author and Article Information
Sandip Panda

Tribology Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur,
Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal, India
e-mail: sandippanda13@gmail.com

Mihir Sarangi, S. K. Roy Chowdhury

Tribology Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur,
Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal, India

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received January 25, 2017; final manuscript received June 2, 2017; published online August 22, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Sinan Muftu.

J. Tribol 140(1), 011609 (Aug 22, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: TRIB-17-1036; doi: 10.1115/1.4037136 History: Received January 25, 2017; Revised June 02, 2017

This paper proposes a wear model for polymers based on so-called mechanistic processes comprising both low cycle fatigue and abrasive wear mechanisms, which are prominent in polymer–metal sliding interfaces. Repeated elastic contact causes localized fatigue, whereas abrasive part is an anticipatory outcome of plastic contacts by hard metal asperities on to soft polymer surface. Further, presuming adhesive interactions in elastic–plastic contacts, asperity contact theories with necessary modifications were analyzed to assess load and separation for their subsequent use in elementary wear correlations. Both Gaussian and Weibull distributions of asperity heights were considered to include statistics of surface microgeometry. Finally, volumetric wear was written in terms of roughness parameters, material properties, and sliding distance. Validation was conducted extensively, and reliability of the formulation was achieved to a large extent. Experimental part of this work included several pin-on-disk tests using polyether ether ketone (PEEK) pins and 316L stainless steel disks. Disks with different roughness characteristics generated by polishing, turning, and milling were tested. Experimental results agreed well with predictions for the polished surface and with some deviations for other two surfaces. Further, fatigue to abrasive wear ratio was identified as an analytical tool to predict prevailing wear mechanism for polymer-metal tribo-systems. After examining the considered cases, it was both interesting and physically intuitive to observe a complete changeover in wear mechanisms following simply an alteration of roughness characteristics.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Briscoe, B. J. , and Sinha, S. K. , 2008, “ Tribological Applications of Polymers and Their Composites: Past, Present and Future Prospects,” Tribol. Interface Eng. Ser., 55, pp. 1–14. [CrossRef]
Kurtz, S. M. , and Devine, J. N. , 2007, “ PEEK Biomaterials in Trauma, Orthopaedic, and Spinal Implants,” Biomaterials, 28(32), pp. 4845–4869. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sanders, A. P. , and Raeymaekers, B. , 2014, “ The Effect of Polyethylene Creep on Tibial Insert Locking Screw Loosening and Back-Out in Prosthetic Knee Joints,” J. Mech. Behavior Biomed. Mater., 38, pp. 1–5. [CrossRef]
Sheng, Q. , White, A. J. , and Müftü, S. , 2017, “ Interfacial Delamination of Thin-Film PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene) Coatings,” J. Adhes., 93(9), pp. 716–733. [CrossRef]
Sheng, Q. , White, A. J. , and Müftü, S. , 2017, “ Indentation of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Thin Film: Simulations by Using Continuum Damage Mechanics,” Tribol. Trans., 60(1), pp. 114–120. [CrossRef]
Lockard, C. A. , Sanders, A. P. , and Raeymaekers, B. , 2016, “ An Experimental Approach to Determining Fatigue Crack Size in Polyethylene Tibial Inserts,” J. Mech. Behaviour Biomed. Mater., 54, pp. 106–114. [CrossRef]
Sheng, Q. , White, A. J. , and Müftü, S. , 2016, “ An Experimental Study of Friction and Durability of a Thin PTFE Film on Rough Aluminum Substrates,” Tribol. Trans., 59(4), pp. 632–640. [CrossRef]
Ludema, K. C. , 1996, “ Mechanism-Based Modeling of Friction and Wear,” Wear, 200(1–2), pp. 1–7. [CrossRef]
Williams, J. A. , 1999, “ Wear Modelling: Analytical, Computational and Mapping: A Continuum Mechanics Approach,” Wear, 225–229(Part 1), pp. 1–17. [CrossRef]
Lancaster, J. K. , 1969, “ Abrasive Wear of Polymers,” Wear, 14(4), pp. 223–239. [CrossRef]
Kraghelsky, I. V. , and Nepomnyashchi, E. F. , 1965, “ Fatigue Wear Under Elastic Contact Conditions,” Wear, 8(4), pp. 303–319. [CrossRef]
Ratner, S. B. , Farberova, I. I. , Radyukevich, O. V. , and Lure, E. G. , 1967, “ Connections Between Wear Resistance of Plastics and Other Mechanical Properties,” Abrasion of Rubber, D. I. James , ed., McLaren, London, pp. 145–154.
Hollander, A. E. , and Lancaster, J. K. , 1973, “ An Application of Topographical Analysis to Wear of Polymers,” Wear, 25(2), pp. 155–170. [CrossRef]
Kar, M. K. , and Bahadur, S. , 1978, “ Micromechanism of Wear at Polymer-Metal Sliding Interface,” Wear, 46(1), pp. 189–202. [CrossRef]
Briscoe, B. J. , and Sinha, S. K. , 2002, “ Wear of Polymers,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J, 216(6), pp. 401–413. [CrossRef]
Jain, V. K. , and Bahadur, S. , 1982, “ An Investigation of the Markings on Wear and Fatigue Fracture Surfaces,” Wear, 75(2), pp. 357–368. [CrossRef]
Sanders, A. P. , Lockard, C. A. , Weisenburger, J. N. , Haider, H. , and Raeymaekers, B. , 2016, “ Using a Surrogate Contact Pair to Evaluate Polyethylene Wear in Prosthetic Knee Joints,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res., Part B, 104(1), pp. 133–140. [CrossRef]
Lewis, R. B. , 1964, “ Predicting the Wear of Sliding Plastic Surfaces,” Mech. Eng., 86, pp. 32–35.
Rhee, S. K. , 1970, “ Wear Equation for Polymers Sliding Against Metal Surfaces,” Wear, 16(6), pp. 431–445. [CrossRef]
Kar, M. K. , and Bahadur, S. , 1974, “ The Wear Equation for Unfilled and Filled Poly-Oxymethylene,” Wear, 30(3), pp. 337–348. [CrossRef]
Vishwanath, N. , and Bellow, D. J. , 1995, “ Development of an Equation for the Wear of Polymers,” Wear, 181–183, pp. 42–49. [CrossRef]
Omar, M. K. , Atkins, A. G. , and Lancaster, J. K. , 1986, “ The Role of Crack Resistance Parameters in Polymer Wear,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 19(2), pp. 177–195. [CrossRef]
Jain, V. K. , and Bahadur, S. , 1980, “ Development of a Wear Equation for Polymer-Metal Sliding in Terms of the Fatigue and Topography of the Sliding Surfaces,” Wear, 60(1), pp. 237–248. [CrossRef]
Jain, V. K. , and Bahadur, S. , 1982, “ Experimental Verification of a Fatigue Wear Equation,” Wear, 79(2), pp. 241–253. [CrossRef]
Roy Chowdhury, S. K. , and Chakraborti, P. , 2008, “ Prediction of Polymer Wear—An Analytical Model and Experimental Validation,” Tribol. Trans., 51(6), pp. 798–809. [CrossRef]
Panda, S. , Roy Chowdhury, S. K. , and Sarangi, M. , 2015, “ Effects of Non-Gaussian Counter-Surface Roughness Parameters on Wear of Engineering Polymers,” Wear, 332–333, pp. 827–835. [CrossRef]
Greenwood, J. A. , and Williamson, J. B. P. , 1966, “ Contact of Nominally Flat Surfaces,” Proc. R. Soc., London, Ser. A, 295(1442), pp. 300–319. [CrossRef]
McCool, J. I. , 1986, “ Comparison of Models for the Contact of Rough Surfaces,” Wear, 107(1), pp. 37–60. [CrossRef]
Jackson, R. L. , and Green, I. , 2011, “ On the Modeling of Elastic Contact Between Rough Surfaces,” Tribol. Trans., 54(2), pp. 300–314. [CrossRef]
Chang, W. R. , Etsion, I. , and Bogy, D. B. , 1987, “ An Elastic–Plastic Model for the Contact of Rough Surfaces,” ASME J. Tribol., 109(2), pp. 257–263. [CrossRef]
Zhao, Y. , Maietta, D. M. , and Chang, L. , 2000, “ An Asperity Microcontact Model Incorporating the Transition From Elastic Deformation to Fully Plastic Flow,” ASME J. Tribol., 122(1), pp. 86–93. [CrossRef]
Kogut, L. , and Etsion, I. , 2002, “ Elastic–Plastic Contact Analysis of a Sphere and a Rigid Flat,” ASME J. Tribol., 69(5), pp. 657–662.
Johnson, K. L. , Kendall, K. , and Roberts, A. D. , 1971, “ Surface Energy and the Contact of Elastic Solids,” Proc. R. Soc., London, Ser. A., 324(1558), pp. 301–313. [CrossRef]
Fuller, K. G. N. , and Tabor, D. , 1975, “ The Effect of Surface Roughness on the Adhesion of Elastic Solids,” Proc. R. Soc., London, Ser. A, 345(1642), pp. 327–342. [CrossRef]
Roy Chowdhury, S. K. , and Pollock, H. M. , 1981, “ Adhesion Between Metal Surfaces: The Effect of Surface Roughness,” Wear, 66(3), pp. 307–321. [CrossRef]
Roy Chowdhury, S. K. , and Ghosh, P. , 1994, “ Adhesion and Adhesional Friction Between Solids,” Wear, 174(1–2), pp. 9–19. [CrossRef]
Shi, X. , and Polycarpou, A. A. , 2005, “ An Elastic–Plastic Hybrid Adhesion Model for Contacting Rough Surfaces in the Presence of Molecularly Thin Lubricant,” J. Colloidal Interface Sci., 290(2), pp. 514–525. [CrossRef]
Johnson, K. L. , 2003, Contact Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Hamilton, G. M. , 1983, “ Explicit Equations for the Stress Beneath a Sliding Spherical Contact,” Proc. Inst. Mech Eng., Part C, 197(1), pp. 53–59. [CrossRef]
Song, J. , and Ehrenstein, G. W. , 1993, “ Effect of Sliding Velocity on the Wear–Effect of Time–Temperature Equivalence,” Wear, 162–164(Part B), pp. 662–668. [CrossRef]
Ludema, K. C. , and Tabor, D. , 1966, “ The Friction and Visco-Elastic Properties of Polymeric Solids,” Wear, 9(5), pp. 329–348. [CrossRef]
Boissonnet, L. , Duffau, B. , and Montmitonnet, P. , 2012, “ A Wear Particle-Based Model of Friction in a Polymer–Metal High Pressure Contact,” Wear, 286–287, pp. 55–65. [CrossRef]
Panda, S. , Panzade, A. , Sarangi, M. , and Roy Chowdhury, S. K. , 2017, “ Spectral Approach on Multi-Scale Roughness Characterization of Nominally Rough Surfaces,” ASME J. Tribol., 139(3), p. 031402.
ASME, 2009, “ Surface Texture (Surface Roughness, Waviness, and Lay),” American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, Standard No. ASME B46.1. http://files.asme.org/Catalog/Codes/PrintBook/28833.pdf
Kumar, P. , 2013, Elements of Fracture Mechanics, McGraw-Hill Education, New Delhi, India.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Optical microscopy on worn-out pin surface after 30 min sliding of an inclined polyether ether ketone (PEEK) pin against a polished 316L disk surface (leftward arrows correspond to sliding directions): (a) load = 6 N, sliding speed = 0.5 m/s and (b) load = 2 N, sliding speed = 0.5 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Elastic–plastic contact of a single spherical protuberance

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic of repetitive contact during sliding: (a) conformal contacts (e.g., perpendicular pin-on-disk system) and (b) nonconformal contacts (e.g., ball-on-disk system)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Predicted and experimental wear of PEEK pins against 316L steel disk surfaces: (a) for polished surface, (b) for turned surface, and (c) for milled surface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparative validation of predicted wear rate (input parameters are taken from Ref. [24])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Predicted wear with respect to load for three polymers and three different roughness characteristics of 316L steel disk as counter surfaces: (a) for polished surface, (b) for turned surface, and (c) for milled surface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Fatigue to abrasive wear transition (for PMMA and PVC as per Ref. [24])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Fatigue to abrasive wear transition for three polymers with respect to load and different roughness characteristics of counter surfaces: (a) for polished surface, (b) for turned surface, and (c) for milled surface

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In