Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of 2218 Al-Alloy-Al2O3(TiO2) Hybrid Composites

[+] Author and Article Information
Vineet Tirth

Associate Professor
Research Center for Advanced Materials
Science (RCAMS),
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
College of Engineering,
King Khalid University,
P.O. Box 9004,
Abha 61413, Asir, Saudi Arabia
e-mails: vtirth@kku.edu.sa; v.tirth@gmail.com

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received April 24, 2017; final manuscript received August 6, 2017; published online September 29, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Dae-Eun Kim.

J. Tribol 140(2), 021603 (Sep 29, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: TRIB-17-1148; doi: 10.1115/1.4037697 History: Received April 24, 2017; Revised August 06, 2017

AA2218–Al2O3(TiO2) composites are synthesized by stirring 2, 5, and 7 wt % of 1:2 mixture of Al2O3:TiO2 powders in molten AA2218 alloy. T61 heat-treated composites characterized for microstructure and hardness. Dry sliding wear tests conducted on pin-on-disk setup at available loads 4.91–13.24 N, sliding speed of 1.26 m/s up to sliding distance of 3770 m. Stir cast AA2218 alloy (unreinforced, 0 wt % composite) wears quickly by adhesion, following Archard's law. Aged alloy exhibits lesser wear rate than unaged (solutionized). Mathematical relationship between wear rate and load proposed for solutionized and peak aged alloy. Volume loss in wear increases linearly with sliding distance but drops with the increase in particle wt % at a given load, attributed to the increase in hardness due to matrix reinforcement. Minimum wear rate is recorded in 5 wt % composite due to increased particles retention, lesser porosity, and uniform particle distribution. In composites, wear phenomenon is complex, combination of adhesive and abrasive wear which includes the effect of shear rate, due to sliding action in composite, and abrasive effect (three body wear) of particles. General mathematical relationship for wear rate of T61 aged composite as a function of particle wt % load is suggested. Fe content on worn surface increases with the increase in particle content and counterface temperature increases with the increase in load. Coefficient of friction decreases with particle addition but increases in 7 wt % composite due to change in microstructure.

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Fig. 1

Pin-on-disk setup used in the study

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Fig. 2

Al2O3 (TiO2) particles added-retained, density and average porosity of the composites

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Fig. 3

Microstructures of T61-AA2218(Al2O3(TiO2) observed under optical microscope: (a) 2 wt %, (b) 5 wt %, (c) 7 wt % at 200×, and (d) SEM micrograph of 5 wt % composite at 50×

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Fig. 4

Cumulative volume loss versus sliding distance at loads 4.91, 8.14, 10, and 13.2 N under dry sliding conditions: (a) un-reinforced, solutionized AA2218 alloy and (b) T61 peak aged AA2218 alloy processed similarly as composites

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Fig. 5

Variation of wear rate with normal loads in solutionized and T61 aged un-reinforced AA2218 alloy processed by stir casting, similarly as composites

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Fig. 6

Dry sliding wear behavior of AA2218-Al2O3(TiO2)-T61 aged, gravity cast composite showing variation of cumulative volume loss with sliding distance at loads 4.91, 8.14, 10, and 13.2 N, respectively: (a) with 2 wt % particle addition, (b) with 5 wt % particle addition, (c) with 7 wt % particle addition, and (d) wear rate versus normal loads for all particle additions (particles retained are given in bracket)

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Fig. 7

Variation of wear rate with particle content at normal loads 4.91, 8.14, 10, and 13.24 N for T61 aged, gravity cast composites. Composites with 0 wt % particle content corresponds to T61 aged, un-reinforced AA2218 alloy.

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Fig. 8

Variation of coefficients (−a) and (b) in gravity cast AA2218-Al2O3(TiO2) composites as a function of load, L

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Fig. 9

Variation of wear coefficient with particle content for T61 aged, gravity cast composites. Composites with 0 wt % particle content correspond to T61 aged un-reinforced AA2218 alloy. Particles added, retained, and porosity is given on x-axis.

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Fig. 10

SEM picture and EDAX analysis of the worn surface after sliding distance of 3770 m: (a) T61-AA2218 alloy at load 8.14 N, (b) T61-AA2218-5 wt % Al2O3(TiO2) composites at 8.14 N normal bearing load, and (c) and (d) T61-AA2218-5 wt % Al2O3(TiO2) composites at 13.24 N

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Fig. 11

Fe content (wt %) present on the worn surfaces measured by EDAX and plotted against particles added. Actual particles retained given in brackets.

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Fig. 12

Average temperature rise of the counterface plotted as a function of load in T61-AA2218-5 wt % Al2O3(TiO2) composites. The ambient temperature at the time of test was 28 ± 2 °C.

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Fig. 13

Average coefficient of friction with respect to particles added at all test loads. Particles retained and porosity given on x-axis.




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