0
Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Effects of Dry Sliding Conditions on Wear Properties of Al-Matrix Composites Produced by Selective Laser Melting Additive Manufacturing

[+] Author and Article Information
Dongdong Gu

College of Materials Science and Technology;
Institute of Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing),
Nanjing University of Aeronautics and
Astronautics (NUAA),
Yudao Street 29,
Nanjing 210016, China
e-mail: dongdonggu@nuaa.edu.cn

Jiubin Jue

College of Materials Science and Technology;
Institute of Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing),
Nanjing University of Aeronautics and
Astronautics (NUAA),
Yudao Street 29,
Nanjing 210016, China
e-mail: jiubinjue@outlook.com

Donghua Dai

College of Materials Science and Technology;
Institute of Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing),
Nanjing University of Aeronautics
and Astronautics (NUAA),
Yudao Street 29,
Nanjing 210016, China
e-mail: donghuadai@nuaa.edu.cn

Kaijie Lin

College of Materials Science and Technology;
Institute of Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing),
Nanjing University of Aeronautics
and Astronautics (NUAA),
Yudao Street 29,
Nanjing 210016, China
e-mail: kaijie_lin@nuaa.edu.cn

Wenhua Chen

College of Materials Science and Technology;
Institute of Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing),
Nanjing University of Aeronautics and
Astronautics (NUAA),
Yudao Street 29,
Nanjing 210016, China
e-mail: wenhuach@nuaa.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received May 17, 2017; final manuscript received August 10, 2017; published online October 4, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Dae-Eun Kim.

J. Tribol 140(2), 021605 (Oct 04, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: TRIB-17-1192; doi: 10.1115/1.4037729 History: Received May 17, 2017; Revised August 10, 2017

The friction and wear properties of in situ Al-matrix composites prepared by selective laser melting (SLM) were evaluated on a ball-on-disk tribometer by sliding against GCr15 steel at room temperature. The influence of the applied load, sliding speed, and long-time continuous friction on the friction and wear properties of Al-matrix composites was systematically investigated. It showed that the wear rate and coefficient of friction (COF) increased when the applied load increased, due to the higher contact stress and larger extent of particle fracturing. As the sliding speed increased, the elevated rate of the formation of Al-oxide layer and the transfer of Fe-oxide layer from the counterface to the worn surface led to a significant reduction in wear rate and COF. As the sliding distance prolonged, the worn surface successively experienced the adhesive wear, the abrasive wear, the particle fracturing and crack nucleation, and the delaminated wear. The above processes were repeated on each exposed fresh surface, resulting in the fluctuation of COF. In the later stage of wear process, a large amount of oxides were produced on the worn surface, caused by the long-time accumulated frictional heat, which reduced the fluctuation of COF. The wear mechanisms of SLM-processed Al-matrix composite parts under various loads were dominated by abrasive wear and oxidation wear, whereas the predominant wear mechanisms were oxidation wear and delamination wear at different sliding speeds. For the long-time friction, all of these wear mechanisms were operational.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Olakanmi, E. O. , Cochrane, R. F. , and Dalgarno, K. W. , 2015, “ A Review on Selective Laser Sintering/Melting (SLS/SLM) of Aluminium Alloy Powders: Processing, Microstructure, and Properties,” Prog. Mater. Sci., 74, pp. 401–477. [CrossRef]
Ibrahim, I. A. , Mohamed, F. A. , and Lavernia, E. J. , 1991, “ Particulate Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites—A Review,” J. Mater. Sci., 26(5), pp. 1137–1156. [CrossRef]
Sc, P. R. D. , 1991, “ Cast Aluminum-Matrix Composites for Automotive Applications,” JOM, 43(4), pp. 10–15. [CrossRef]
Prasad, S. V. , and Asthana, R. , 2004, “ Aluminum Metal-Matrix Composites for Automotive Applications: Tribological Considerations,” Tribol. Lett., 17(3), pp. 445–453. [CrossRef]
Tripathi, K. , Joshi, B. , Gyawali, G. , Amanov, A. , and Lee, S. W. , 2015, “ A Study on the Effect of Laser Surface Texturing on Friction and Wear Behavior of Graphite Cast Iron,” ASME J. Tribol., 138(1), p. 011601. [CrossRef]
El-Kady, O. , and Fathy, A. , 2014, “ Effect of SiC Particle Size on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Extruded Al Matrix Nanocomposites,” Mater. Des., 54(2), pp. 348–353. [CrossRef]
Du, J. , Liu, Y. H. , Yu, S. R. , and Li, W. F. , 2004, “ Dry Sliding Friction and Wear Properties of Al2O3 and Carbon Short Fibres Reinforced Al-12Si Alloy Hybrid Composites,” Wear, 257(9–10), pp. 930–940.
Gu, D. D. , Wang, H. Q. , and Dai, D. H. , 2015, “ Laser Additive Manufacturing of Novel Aluminum Based Nanocomposite Parts: Tailored Forming of Multiple Materials,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 138(2), p. 021004. [CrossRef]
Dandekar, C. R. , and Shin, Y. C. , 2010, “ Laser-Assisted Machining of a Fiber Reinforced Metal Matrix Composite,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 132(6), p. 061004. [CrossRef]
Chandra, A. , Wang, K. , Huang, Y. , Subhash, G. , Miller, M. H. , and Qu, W. , 2000, “ Role of Unloading in Machining of Brittle Materials,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 122(3), pp. 452–462. [CrossRef]
Hwang, T. W. , and Malkin, S. , 1999, “ Grinding Mechanisms and Energy Balance for Ceramics,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 121(4), pp. 623–631. [CrossRef]
Ho, T. L. , and Peterson, M. B. , 1977, “ Wear Formulation for Aircraft Brake Material Sliding Against Steel,” Wear, 43(2), pp. 199–210. [CrossRef]
Surappa, M. K. , Prasad, S. V. , and Rohatgi, P. K. , 1982, “ Wear and Abrasion of Cast Al-Alumina Particle Composites,” Wear, 77(3), pp. 295–302. [CrossRef]
Caracostas, C. A. , Chiou, W. A. , Fine, M. E. , and Cheng, H. S. , 1997, “ Tribological Properties of Aluminum Alloy Matrix TiB2 Composite Prepared by In Situ Processing,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 28(2), pp. 491–502. [CrossRef]
Mangin, C. G. E. , Isaacs, J. A. , and Clark, J. P. , 1996, “ MMCs for Automotive Engine Applications,” JOM, 48(2), pp. 49–51. [CrossRef]
Hutchings, I. M. , 1994, “ Tribological Properties of Metal Matrix Composites,” Mater. Sci. Technol., 10(6), pp. 513–517. [CrossRef]
Miyajima, T. , and Iwai, Y. , 2003, “ Effects of Reinforcements on Sliding Wear Behavior of Aluminum Matrix Composites,” Wear, 255(1–6), pp. 606–616. [CrossRef]
Ahlatci, H. , Koçer, T. , Candan, E. , and Çimenoğlu, H. , 2006, “ Wear Behaviour of Al/(Al2O3p+SiCp) Hybrid Composites,” Tribol. Int., 39(3), pp. 213–220. [CrossRef]
Wang, X. H. , Zhang, M. , and Qu, S. Y. , 2010, “ Microstructure and Wear Properties of Laser Clad (Ti,Mo)C Multiple Carbide Reinforced Fe-Based Composite Coating,” ASME J. Tribol., 132(4), p. 044503. [CrossRef]
Etsion, I. , 2004, “ State of the Art in Laser Surface Texturing,” ASME J. Tribol., 127(1), pp. 248–253.
Laurent, V. , Chatain, D. , Chatillon, C. , and Eustathopoulos, N. , 1988, “ Wettability of Monocrystalline Alumina by Aluminium Between Its Melting Point and 1273 K,” Acta Metall., 36(7), pp. 1797–1803. [CrossRef]
Kaplan, W. D. , 1998, “ Alumina-Aluminium Interfaces,” Interfacial Science in Ceramic Joining, Vol. 58, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 153–160. [CrossRef]
Louvis, E. , Fox, P. , and Sutcliffe, C. J. , 2011, “ Selective Laser Melting of Aluminium Components,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 211(2), pp. 275–284. [CrossRef]
Bao, S. , Tang, K. , Kvithyld, A. , Tangstad, M. , and Engh, T. A. , 2011, “ Wettability of Aluminum on Alumina,” Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 42(6), pp. 1358–1366. [CrossRef]
Shen, P. , Fujii, H. , Matsumoto, T. , and Nogi, K. , 2004, “ Critical Factors Affecting the Wettability of α-Alumina by Molten Aluminum,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 87(7), pp. 1265–1273.
Gu, D. D. , Chang, F. , and Dai, D. H. , 2014, “ Selective Laser Melting Additive Manufacturing of Novel Aluminum Based Composites With Multiple Reinforcing Phases,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 137(2), p. 021010. [CrossRef]
Brizmer, V. , and Kligerman, Y. , 2012, “ A Laser Surface Textured Journal Bearing,” ASME J. Tribol., 134(3), p. 031702.
Feldman, Y. , Kligerman, Y. , and Etsion, I. , 2007, “ Stiffness and Efficiency Optimization of a Hydrostatic Laser Surface Textured Gas Seal,” ASME J. Tribol., 129(2), pp. 407–410.
Sercombe, T. B. , and Schaffer, G. B. , 2003, “ Rapid Manufacturing of Aluminum Components,” Science, 301(5637), pp. 1225–1227. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gu, D. D. , 2015, Laser Additive Manufacturing of High-Performance Materials, Springer-Verlag, Berlin. [CrossRef]
Fu, C. H. , and Guo, Y. B. , 2014, “ Three-Dimensional Temperature Gradient Mechanism in Selective Laser Melting of Ti-6Al-4V,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(6), p. 061004. [CrossRef]
Yadroitsev, I. , Bertrand, P. , and Smurov, I. , 2007, “ Parametric Analysis of the Selective Laser Melting Process,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 253(19), pp. 8064–8069. [CrossRef]
Jue, J. B. , Gu, D. D. , Chang, K. , and Dai, D. H. , 2016, “ Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Al-Al2O3 Composites Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting,” Powder Technol., 310, pp. 80–91. [CrossRef]
Hosking, F. M. , Portillo, F. F. , Wunderlin, R. , and Mehrabian, R. , 1982, “ Composites of Aluminium Alloys: Fabrication and Wear Behavior,” J. Mater. Sci., 17(2), pp. 477–498. [CrossRef]
Kök, M. , 2006, “ Abrasive Wear of Al2O3 Particle Reinforced 2024 Aluminium Alloy Composites Fabricated by Vortex Method,” Composites, Part A, 37(3), pp. 457–464. [CrossRef]
Yu, S. Y. , Ishii, H. , Tohgo, K. , Cho, Y. T. , and Diao, D. , 1997, “ Temperature Dependence of Sliding Wear Behavior in SiC Whisker or SiC Particulate Reinforced 6061 Aluminum Alloy Composite,” Wear, 213(1–2), pp. 21–28. [CrossRef]
Jue, J. B. , and Gu, D. D. , 2016, “ Selective Laser Melting Additive Manufacturing of In Situ Al2Si4O10/Al Composites: Microstructural Characteristics and Mechanical Properties,” J. Compos. Mater., 51(4), pp. 519–532.
Gu, D. D. , Meiners, W. , Wissenbach, K. , and Poprawe, R. , 2012, “ Laser Additive Manufacturing of Metallic Components: Materials, Processes and Mechanisms,” Int. Mater. Rev., 57(3), pp. 133–164. [CrossRef]
Kubaschewski, O. , and Hopkins, B. E. , 1962, Oxidation of Metals and Alloys, Butterworths, London.
Yilbas, B. S. , Matthews, A. , Karatas, C. , Leyland, A. , Khaled, M. , Abu-Dheir, N. , Al-Aqeeli, N. , and Nie, X. , 2014, “ Laser Texturing of Plasma Electrolytically Oxidized Aluminum 6061 Surfaces for Improved Hydrophobicity,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(5), p. 054501. [CrossRef]
Tjong, S. C. , Wang, H. Z. , and Wu, S. Q. , 1996, “ Wear Behavior of Aluminum-Based Metal Matrix Composites Reinforced With a Preform of Aluminosilicate Fiber,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 27(8), pp. 2385–2389. [CrossRef]
Kannan, S. , Kishawy, H. A. , and Balazinski, M. , 2006, “ Flank Wear Progression During Machining Metal Matrix Composites,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 128(3), pp. 787–791. [CrossRef]
Kim, D. E. , and Hwang, D. H. , 1998, “ Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Machining Condition on the Contact Sliding Behavior of Metals,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 120(2), pp. 395–400. [CrossRef]
Moustafa, S. F. , 1995, “ Wear and Wear Mechanisms of Al-22%Si/A12O3f Composite,” Wear, 185(1–2), pp. 189–195. [CrossRef]
Jiang, X. S. , Wang, N. J. , and Zhu, D. G. , 2014, “ Friction and Wear Properties of In-Situ Synthesized Al2O3 Reinforced Aluminum Composites,” Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 24(7), pp. 2352–2358. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Z. F. , Zhang, L. C. , and Mai, Y. W. , 1995, “ Wear of Ceramic Particle-Reinforced Metal-Matrix Composites,” J. Mater. Sci., 30(8), pp. 1967–1971. [CrossRef]
Suh, N. P. , Saka, N. , and Jahanmir, S. , 1977, “ Implications of the Delamination Theory on Wear Minimization,” Wear, 44(1), pp. 127–134. [CrossRef]
Jahanmir, S. , and Suh, N. P. , 1977, “ Mechanics of Subsurface Void Nucleation in Delamination Wear,” Wear, 44(1), pp. 17–38. [CrossRef]
Finot, M. , Shen, Y. L. , Needleman, A. , and Suresh, S. , 1994, “ Micromechanical Modeling of Reinforcement Fracture in Particle-Reinforced Metal-Matrix Composites,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 25(11), pp. 2403–2420. [CrossRef]
Guo, C. , Zhou, J. S. , Zhao, J. R. , and Chen, J. M. , 2010, “ Microstructure and Tribological Properties of ZrB2-Containing Composite Coating Produced on Pure Ti Substrate by Laser Surface Alloying,” ASME J. Tribol., 133(1), p. 011301. [CrossRef]
Hua, X. J. , Sun, J. G. , Zhang, P. Y. , Liu, K. , Wang, R. , Ji, J. H. , and Fu, Y. H. , 2016, “ Tribological Properties of Laser Microtextured Surface Bonded With Composite Solid Lubricant at High Temperature,” ASME J. Tribol., 138(3), p. 031302. [CrossRef]
Cho, Y. T. , Tohgo, K. , and Ishii, H. , 1997, “ Load Carrying Capacity of a Broken Ellipsoidal Inhomogeneity,” Acta Mater., 45(11), pp. 4787–4795. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematics of SLM apparatus (a) and ball-on-disk tribometer for wear tests (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Optical microscopy image showing the regular and coherent interlayer bonding in SLM-processed Al-matrix composite part (a); FE-SEM micrograph showing the homogeneous microstructure of SLM-processed Al-matrix composites (b); and high-magnification FE-SEM micrograph showing the dispersion of Al2Si4O10 ceramic reinforcement along grain boundaries of the matrix (c)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

COF versus sliding distance for SLM-processed Al-matrix composite parts at a constant sliding speed of 0.52 m/s under different loads: (a) 3 N, (b) 6 N, and (c) 9 N

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Variation of volume loss as a function of sliding distance under different loads for SLM-processed Al-matrix composite parts (a) and change of wear rate with load after continuous friction of 600 m (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

FE-SEM images showing the characteristic morphologies of worn surfaces of SLM-processed Al-matrix composite parts under different loads: (a) 3 N, (b) 6 N, and (c) 9 N

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

EDS elemental mapping for Al (a) and O (b) elements on the specimen surface before wear test; and EDS elemental mapping for Al (c) and O (d) elements on the worn surface of Fig. 5(a) after wear test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

High-magnification FE-SEM images showing the typical morphologies of the wear debris on worn surfaces of SLM-processed Al-matrix composite parts using different loads: (a) 3 N, (b) 6 N, and (c) 9 N

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Schematic of abrasive wear mechanism consisting of two steps: (a) the separation of Al2O3 and Al2Si4O10 reinforcement and (b) the plowing effect on worn surface and the formation of grooves

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

COF versus sliding distance for SLM-processed Al-matrix composite parts under a normal load of 9 N using different sliding speeds: (a) 0.52 m/s, (b) 0.35 m/s, and (c) 0.18 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Variation of volume loss of SLM-processed Al-matrix composite parts as a function of sliding distance at different sliding speeds (a) and (b) relationship between wear rate and sliding speed after continuous friction for 600 m

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

FE-SEM images showing the characteristic morphologies of the worn surfaces of SLM-processed Al-matrix composite parts under different sliding speeds: (a) 0.52 m/s, (b) 0.35 m/s, and (c) 0.18 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

High-magnification FE-SEM images showing the typical morphologies of the wear debris on worn surfaces of SLM-processed Al-matrix composite parts using different sliding speeds: (a) 0.52 m/s, (b) 0.35 m/s, and (c) 0.18 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

EDS elemental mapping for Al (a), O (b), and Fe (c) elements in Fig. 11(a); and EDS elemental mapping for Al (d), O (e), and Fe (f) elements in Fig. 11(c)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Schematic of the delamination wear mechanism consisting of two steps: (a) the nucleation of cracks and (b) the propagation of cracks and occurrence of delamination

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Continuous wear performance of SLM-processed Al-matrix composite parts under the severe conditions (load 9 N and sliding speed 0.18 m/s): (a) relationship between COF and sliding distance and (b) variation of volume loss with sliding distance

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

FE-SEM images showing characteristic morphologies of worn surface of SLM-processed Al-matrix composites under the heavy wear conditions: (a) the formation of cracks and deep grooves and (b) the severe spalling of worn debris. EDS analysis of the chemical compositions on the worn surface after wear test (c).

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In