Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Effect of Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Centrifugally Cast Functionally Graded Cu/Al2O3 Composite

[+] Author and Article Information
Manu Sam

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Amrita School of Engineering,
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham,
Amrita University,
Coimbatore 641112, India
e-mail: manusam.chiramel@gmail.com

N. Radhika

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Amrita School of Engineering,
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham,
Amrita University,
Coimbatore 641112, India
e-mail: n_radhika1@cb.amrita.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received April 26, 2017; final manuscript received August 2, 2017; published online October 6, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Nuria Espallargas.

J. Tribol 140(2), 021606 (Oct 06, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: TRIB-17-1152; doi: 10.1115/1.4037767 History: Received April 26, 2017; Revised August 02, 2017

A functionally graded Cu–10Sn–5Ni metal matrix composite (MMC) reinforced with 10 wt % of Al2O3 particles was fabricated using the centrifugal casting process with dimension Φout100 × Φin85 × 100 mm. The mechanical and wear resistance of the composite has been enhanced through heat treatment. Samples from of the inner zone (9–15 mm) were considered for heat treatment, as this zone has higher concentration of less dense hard reinforcement particles. The samples were solutionized (620 °C/60 min) and water quenched followed by aging at different temperatures (400, 450, and 550 °C) and time (1–3 h). Optimum parametric combination (450 °C, 3 h) with maximum hardness (269 HV) was considered for further analysis. Dry sliding wear experiments were conducted based on Taguchi's L27 array using parameters such as applied loads (10, 20, and 30 N), sliding distances (500, 1000, and 1500 m), and sliding velocities (1, 2, and 3 m/s). Results revealed that the wear rate increased with load and distance whereas it decreased initially and then increased with velocity. Optimum condition for maximum wear resistance was determined using signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) predicted the major influential parameter as load, followed by velocity and distance. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of worn surfaces predicted the wear mechanism, observing more delamination due to increase in contact patch when applied load increased. Results infer 8% increase in hardness after heat treatment, making it suitable for load bearing applications.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Uysal, M. , and Karslioglu, R. , 2013, “ Characteristics Bronze/Al2O3 (Ni) Reinforcement Metal Matrix Composite Produced by Current Activated Sintering,” Acta Phys. Pol. A, 123(2), pp. 235–237. [CrossRef]
Ferreira, S. C. , Rocha, L. A. , Ariza, E. , Sequeira, P. D. , Watanabe, Y. , and Fernandes, J. C. S. , 2011, “ Corrosion Behaviour of Al/Al3Ti and Al/Al3Zr Functionally Graded Materials Produced by Centrifugal Solid-Particle Method: Influence of the Intermetallics Volume Fraction,” Corros. Sci., 53(6), pp. 2058–2065.
Barmouz, M. , Asadi, P. , Givi, M. K. B. , and Taherishargh, M. , 2011, “ Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Cu/SiC Composite: Effect of SiC Particles Size and Volume Fraction,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 528(3), pp. 1740–1749. [CrossRef]
Moustafa, S. F. , Abdel-Hamid, Z. , and Abd-Elahi, A. M. , 2002, “ Copper Matrix SiC and Al2O3 Particulate Composites by Powder Metallurgy Technique,” Mater. Lett., 53(4–5), pp. 244–249. [CrossRef]
Hong, E. , Kaplin, B. , You, T. , Suh, M.-S. , Kim, Y.-S. , and Choe, H. , 2011, “ Tribological Properties of Copper Alloy-Based Composites Reinforced With Tungsten Carbide Particles,” Wear, 270(9–10), pp. 591–597. [CrossRef]
Radhika, N. , and Subramanian, R. , 2014, “ Effect of Aging Time on Mechanical Properties and Tribological Behaviour of Aluminum Hybrid Composite,” Int. J. Mater. Res., 105(9), pp. 875–882. [CrossRef]
Prabhash, J. , and Praveen, K. N. , 2013, “ Influence of Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Hardness of Nickel Aluminum Bronze (Cu-10Al-5Ni-5Fe),” IOSR J. Mech. Civil Eng., 4(6), pp. 16–21. [CrossRef]
Vembu, V. , and Ganeshan, G. , 2015, “ Heat Treatment Optimization for Tensile Properties of 8011 Al/15%SiCp Metal Matrix Composite Using Response Function Methodology,” Def. Technol., 11(4), pp. 390–395. [CrossRef]
Skolianos, S. , 1996, “ Mechanical Behavior of Cast SiCp-Reinforced Al-4.5% Cu-1.5% Mg Alloy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 210(1–2), pp. 76–82. [CrossRef]
Okayasu, M. , Muranaga, T. , and Endo, A. , 2017, “ Analysis of Microstructural Effects on Mechanical Properties of Copper Alloys,” J. Sci. Adv. Mater. Dev., 2(1), pp. 128–139.
Sequeira, P. D. , Watanabe, Y. , and Rocha, L. A. , 2005, “ Particle Distribution and Orientation in Al-Al3Zr and Al-Al3Ti FGMs Produced by the Centrifugal Method,” Mater. Sci. Forum, 492–493, pp. 609–614. [CrossRef]
Dhokey, N. B. , and Paretkar, R. K. , 2008, “ Effect of Ceramic Particulate Type on Microstructure and Properties of Copper Matrix Composites Synthesized by Friction Stir Processing,” Wear, 265(2), pp. 117–133. [CrossRef]
Watanabe, Y. , Kawamoto, A. , and Matsuda, K. , 2002, “ Particle Size Distributions in Functionally Graded Materials Fabricated by the Centrifugal Solid-Particle Method,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 62(6), pp. 881–888. [CrossRef]
Prasat, S. V. , Subramanian, S. , Radhika, N. , Anandavel, B. , Arun, L. , and Praveen, N. , 2011, “ Influence of Parameters on the Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Aluminum, Ash/Graphite Hybrid Metal Matrix, Composites,” Eur. J. Sci. Res., 53(2), pp. 280–290.
Radhika, N. , Vijaykarthik, K. T. , and Shivaram, P. , 2015, “ Adhesive Wear Behaviour of Aluminum Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites Using Genetic Algorithm,” J. Eng. Sci. Technol., 10(3), pp. 258–268.
Tjong, S. C. , and Lau, K. C. , 2000, “ Abrasive Behaviour of TiB2 Particle-Reinforced Copper Matrix Composites,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 43(5–6), pp. 274–280. [CrossRef]
Malas, J. C. , Venugopal, S. , and Seshacharyulu, T. , 1978, “ Effect of Microstructural Complexity on the Hot Deformation Behavior of Aluminum Alloy 2024,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 368(1–2), pp. 41–47. [CrossRef]
Ferhat, G. , and Mehmet, A. , 2004, “ Effect of the Reinforcement Volume Fraction on the Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Al–10Si/SiCp Composites Produced by Vacuum Infiltration Technique,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 64(13–14), pp. 59–66.
Zhang, L. , He, X. B. , Qu, X. H. , Duan, B. H. , Lu, X. , and Qin, M. L. , 2008, “ Dry Sliding Wear Properties of High Volume Fraction SiCp/Cu Composites Produced by Pressure-Less Infiltration,” Wear, 265(11–12), pp. 1848–1856. [CrossRef]
Devaraju, A. , Kumar, A. , Kumaraswamy, A. , and Kotiveerachari, B. , 2013, “ Influence of Reinforcements (SiC and Al2O3) and Rotational Speed on Wear and Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloy 6061-T6 Based Surface Hybrid Composites Produced Via Friction Stir Processing,” Mater. Des., 51, pp. 331–341. [CrossRef]
Radhika, N. , and Raghu, R. , 2015, “ Evaluation of Dry Sliding Wear Characteristics of LM-13 Al/B4C Composites,” Tribol. Ind., 37(1), pp. 20–28.
Karamis, B. , and Fehmi, N. , 2010, “ An Investigation of the Tribological Interaction Between Die Damage and Billet Deformation During MMC Extrusion,” Tribol. Int., 43(1), pp. 347–355.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Variation in hardness value at different parametric combinations of aging done at constant solutionizing parameters

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

XRD spectra of the heat treated Cu–Sn–Ni/Al2O3 composite

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Microstrucure of the inner zone after heat treatment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Centrifugally cast composite specimen

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Plot for the wear rate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

SEM analysis of the worn surface at different distances: (a) 500 m and (b) 1500 m

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

SEM analysis of the worn surface at L = 10 N, V = 2 m/s, and D = 500 m

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

SEM analysis of the worn surface at different loads: (a) 10 N and (b) 30 N

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

SEM analysis of the worn surface at different velocities: (a) 1 m/s and (b) 2 m/s




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In