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Research Papers: Applications

A Novel Modeling Approach to Simulate Rolling Contact Fatigue and Three-Dimensional Spalls

[+] Author and Article Information
Aditya A. Walvekar

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: awalveka@purdue.edu

Dallin Morris

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: morri295@purdue.edu

Zamzam Golmohammadi

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: zgolmoha@purdue.edu

Farshid Sadeghi

Cummins Distinguished Professor of
Mechanical Engineering,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: sadeghi@purdue.edu

Martin Correns

Schaeffler Technologies GmbH & Co,
KG Industriestraße 1-3,
Herzogenaurach 91074, Germany
e-mail: corremnt@schaeffler.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received May 1, 2017; final manuscript received August 24, 2017; published online October 23, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Alan Palazzolo.

J. Tribol 140(3), 031101 (Oct 23, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: TRIB-17-1163; doi: 10.1115/1.4038098 History: Received May 01, 2017; Revised August 24, 2017

In this study, a new approach has been developed to simulate three-dimensional (3D) experimental rolling contact fatigue (RCF) spalls using a two-dimensional (2D) finite element (FE) model. The model introduces a novel concept of dividing the 3D Hertzian pressure profile into 2D sections and utilizing them in a 2D continuum damage mechanics (CDM) RCF model. The distance between the two sections was determined by the size of the grains in the material microstructure. The 2D RCF model simulates characteristics of case carburized steels by incorporating hardness gradient and residual stress (RS) distribution with depth. The model also accounts for the topological randomness in the material microstructure using Voronoi tessellation. In order to define the failure criterion for the current model, sub-surface stress analysis was conducted for the Hertzian elliptical contact. It was predicted that the high shear stress region near the end of the major axis of the contact is the cause of catastrophic damage and spall formation. This prediction was validated by analyzing the spalls observed during RCF experiments using a surface profilometer. The model was implemented to predict RCF lives for 33 random material domains for different contact geometry and maximum Hertzian pressures. The model results were then compared to the RCF experiments conducted on two different test rigs, a three-ball-on-rod and a thrust bearing test apparatus (TBTA). It was found that the RCF lives obtained from the model are in good agreement with the experimental results. The results also demonstrated that the spalls generated using the analytical results resemble the spalls observed in experiments.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Three-ball-on-rod test rig for RCF and schematic of the contact

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Fig. 2

Thrust bearing test apparatus with zoomed picture of the specimen holder

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Fig. 3

Schematic of the contacting bodies for the thrust bearing test apparatus

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Fig. 4

Weibull probability plots of RCF lives for case carburized AISI 8620 steels obtained from thrust bearing test apparatus. The solid lines represent the fitted two-parameter Weibull distribution.

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Fig. 5

Surface profilometry of spalls observed on RCF test specimens of (a) three-ball-on-rod tests and (b) TBTA

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Fig. 6

Ellipsoidal pressure profile for three-ball-on-rod test conditions

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Fig. 7

Cross sections perpendicular to the rolling direction of the spalls observed on RCF test specimens of (a) three-ball-on-rod tests and (b) TBTA

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Fig. 8

Vickers hardness measurements at different depths from the surface for (a) three-ball-on-rod specimens and (b) thrust bearing test specimens

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Fig. 9

Yield strength versus depth profiles for (a) three-ball-on-rod specimens and (b) thrust bearing test specimens

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Fig. 10

Residual stress versus depth profiles for (a) three-ball-on-rod specimens and (b) thrust bearing test specimens

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Fig. 11

Torsion SN curves for carburized AISI 8620 steels used to manufacture (a) three-ball-on-rod specimens (Adapted from Shen et al. [14]) and (b) thrust bearing test specimens

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Fig. 12

Variation of damage parameters τr0 and S0 with change in yield strength for three-ball-on-rod specimens

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Fig. 13

Variation of damage parameters τr0 and S0 with change in yield strength for thrust bearing test specimens

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Fig. 14

Three-dimensional Voronoi domain (grain microstructure) separated into layers of grains parallel to the rolling direction. Breadth of each layer is equal to the grain size.

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Fig. 15

Three-dimensional Hertzian pressure profile and representation of RCF test’s pressure profile divided into 2D cross section

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Fig. 16

Contact half-widths (b) and maximum Hertzian pressures (Pmax) for different pressure sections against their distance from the centerline

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Fig. 17

Top view and isometric view of subsurface shear stresses due to Hertzian pressure profile

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Fig. 18

Weibull plot of experimental RCF results compared to modeling results

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Fig. 19

Comparison of experimental RCF results from thrust bearing test apparatus with the modeling results

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Fig. 20

Crack propagation path produced by the model for one of the pressure profile sections

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Fig. 21

Comparison of 3D spall obtained from the model to the experimental spall shape

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