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Research Papers: Lubricants

Tribo-Investigations on Oils With Dispersants and Hexagonal Boron Nitride Particles

[+] Author and Article Information
Manoj Kumar Gupta

Industrial Tribology Machine Dynamics and
Maintenance Engineering Centre,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Delhi 110016, India
e-mail: manoj2012kgupta@gmail.com

Jayashree Bijwe

Industrial Tribology Machine Dynamics
and Maintenance Engineering Centre,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Delhi 110016, India
e-mail: jbijwe@gmail.com

Ajay Kumar Kadiyala

Industrial Tribology Machine Dynamics and
Maintenance Engineering Centre,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Delhi 110016, India
e-mail: ajay.kadiyala@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received June 29, 2017; final manuscript received September 26, 2017; published online October 27, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Satish V. Kailas.

J. Tribol 140(3), 031801 (Oct 27, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: TRIB-17-1261; doi: 10.1115/1.4038105 History: Received June 29, 2017; Revised September 26, 2017

A dispersant is almost an unavoidable additive in engine oils since it helps to keep the carbonaceous particles in a suspended form. Dispersants can be multifunctional and can therefore interfere with the functions of other additives either synergistically or antagonistically. The present work investigated the influence of four dispersants (with and without particles of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) on selected lubrication-related properties of the oils using four ball tester. Particles of hBN, though known as effective anti-wear (AW) and anti-friction (AF) additives, did not prove effective in oil in the presence of dispersants. On the other hand, it proved to be a good extreme pressure (EP) additive by showing 27% improvement in weld load (WL). Worn surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Raman spectroscopy.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs 5 μm hBN particles

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Fig. 2

Configuration of a four ball tester (a) and welded balls (b)

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Fig. 3

Photographs of oils added with dispersant and hBN: (a) freshly prepared oils; (b) after a week; and (c) OP1H for different weeks

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Fig. 4

Influence of concentration of dispersants with and without hBN on weld load of oils; (a) Oleic acid, (b) PIBSI, (c) LZ 6412, and (d) Oloa 11000 (bars with dots indicate hBN added oils; bars with darker shades and more strips indicate oils with higher % of dispersant)

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Fig. 5

Influence of concentration of dispersant with and without hBN particles on WSD at preweld loads (PWL); (a) 1098 N, (b) 1236 N, and (c) 1373 N (bars with dots indicate hBN added oils; bars with darker shades and more strips indicate oils with higher % of dispersant)

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Fig. 6

Friction coefficient as a function of time indicating influence of concentration of dispersants in oil with and without hBN on preweld loads (N): (a) 1098, (b) 1236, and (c) 1373

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Fig. 7

(a) Raman spectra of the ball at preweld load (1098 N) for OP1 oil and (b) corresponding Raman spectra

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Fig. 8

(a) Optical image of scar region for the preweld (1236 N) ball in OP1H, (b) Raman spectra around the scar at marked locations (900 cm−1 to 1700 cm−1), and (c) Raman spectra at location 1 (150 cm−1 to 800 cm−1)

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Fig. 9

SEM micrographs and EDAX dot maps of worn surfaces of balls at preweld load (a)–(c) for OP1 (1098 N) and (d)–(g) for OP1H (1236 N) oils

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