Research Papers: Applications

An Experimental Investigation of Churning Power Losses of a Gearbox

[+] Author and Article Information
J. Polly, A. Kahraman

Department of Mechanical
and Aerospace Engineering,
The Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43210

D. Talbot

Department of Mechanical
and Aerospace Engineering,
The Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43210
e-mail: talbot.11@osu.edu

A. Singh, H. Xu

General Motors Powertrain,
Pontiac, MI 48390

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received September 8, 2017; final manuscript received October 30, 2017; published online January 24, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Sinan Muftu.

J. Tribol 140(3), 031102 (Jan 24, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: TRIB-17-1350; doi: 10.1115/1.4038412 History: Received September 08, 2017; Revised October 30, 2017

In this study, load-independent (spin) power losses of a gearbox operating under dip-lubrication conditions are investigated experimentally using a final-drive helical gear pair from an automotive transmission as the example system. A dedicated gearbox is developed to operate a single gear or a gear pair under given speed and temperature conditions. A test matrix that consists of sets of tests with: (i) a single spur, helical gears, or disks with no teeth and (ii) helical gear pairs is executed at various temperatures, immersion depths, and pinion positions relative to its mating gear. Power losses from single gear and gear pair at identical operating conditions are compared to quantify the components of the total spin loss in the form of losses due to gear drag, gear mesh pocketing, and bearings and seals.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Kahraman, A. , Seetharaman, S. , Szweda, T. , Kirchner, E. , Olsson, M. , and Bednarek, G. , 2008, “ Development of an Efficiency Model for Transmissions,” CTI Conference, Berlin, Oct. 14–15.
Rosander, P. , Bednarek, G. , Seetharaman, S. , and Kahraman, A. , 2008, “ Entwicklung eines Wirkungsgrad-modells fur Sahalltgetriebe,” Automobiltech. Z., 110(4), pp. 346–357. [CrossRef]
Akin, L. S. , and Mross, J. J. , 1975, “ Theory for the Effect of Windage on the Lubricant Flow in the Tooth Spaces of Spur Gears,” J. Eng. Ind., 97(4), pp. 1266–1273. [CrossRef]
Dawson, P. H. , 1984, “ Windage Loss in Larger High Speed Gears,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 198(1), pp. 51–59. [CrossRef]
Al-Shibl, K. , Simmons, K. , and Eastwick, C. N. , 2007, “ Modeling Windage Power Loss From an Enclosed Spur Gear,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A, 221(3), pp. 331–341. [CrossRef]
Handschuh, R. F. , and Hurrell, M. J. , 2010, “ Initial Experiments of High-Speed Drive System Windage Losses,” VDI International Conference on Gears, Munich, Germany, Oct. 4–6, pp. 1159–1172. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100036224
Seetharaman, S. , and Kahraman, A. , 2010, “ A Windage Power Loss Model for Spur Gear Pairs,” Tribol. Trans., 53(4), pp. 473–484. [CrossRef]
Terekhov, A. S. , 1991, “ Basic Problems of Heat Calculation of Gear Reducers,” JSME International Conference on Motion and Power Transmissions, Hiroshima, Japan, pp. 490–495.
Boness, R. J. , 1989, “ Churning Losses of Discs and Gears Running Partially Submerged in Oil,” International Power Transmission and Gearing Conference, Chicago, IL, Apr. 25–28, pp. 355–359.
Luke, P. , and Olver, V. , 1999, “ A Study of Churning Losses in Dip-Lubricated Spur Gears,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part G, 213(5), pp. 337–346. [CrossRef]
Petry-Johnson, T. , Kahraman, A. , Anderson, N. E. , and Chase, D. , 2008, “ An Experimental Investigation of Power Losses of High-Speed Spur Gears,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 130(6), p. 062601. [CrossRef]
Seetharaman, S. , Kahraman, A. , Moorhead, M. , and Petry-Johnson, T. , 2009, “ Load-Independent Power Losses of a Spur Gear Pair: Experiments and Model Validation,” ASME J. Tribol., 131(2), p. 022202. [CrossRef]
Changenet, C. , and Velex, P. , 2007, “ A Model for the Prediction of Churning Losses in Geared Transmissions—Preliminary Results,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 129(1), pp. 128–133. [CrossRef]
Changenet, C. , and Velex, P. , 2008, “ Housing Influence on Churning Losses in Geared Transmissions,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 130(6), p. 062603. [CrossRef]
Wittbrodt, M. J. , and Pechersky, M. J. , 1989, “ A Hydrodynamic Analysis of Fluid Flow Between Meshing Spur Gear Teeth,” ASME J. Mech., Trans., and Automation, 111(3), pp. 395–401.
Seetharaman, S. , and Kahraman, A. , 2009, “ Load-Independent Power Losses of a Spur Gear Pair: Model Formulation,” ASME J. Tribol., 131(2), p. 022201. [CrossRef]
Diab, Y. , Ville, F. , Houjoh, H. , Sainsot, P. , and Velex, P. , 2005, “ Experimental and Numerical Investigations on the Air-Pumping Phenomenon in High-Speed Spur and Helical Gears,” J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 219(8), pp. 785–800. [CrossRef]
Talbot, D. , Kahraman, A. , and Seetharaman, S. , 2014, “ A Pocketing Power Loss Model for Helical Gears,” ASME J. Tribol., 136(2), p. 021105. [CrossRef]
Kahraman, A. , Hilty, D. R. , and Singh, A. , 2015, “ An Experimental Study of Spin Power Losses of Planetary Gear Sets,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 86, pp. 48–61. [CrossRef]
Harris, T. A. , and Kotzalas, M. N. , 2007, Rolling Bearing Analysis, 5th ed., CRC Press, New York.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) A view of the assembled test gearbox with front and top covers removed and (b) the test gear pair

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Cross-sectional drawings of the test gearbox (a) with both gears assembled and (b) with only the ring gear assembled

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Circumferential pinion position angles ϕ achievable by the test gearbox

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Parameters defining of the static oil level parameter h¯

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Helical gear, spur gear, and the ring gear blank with no teeth

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Repeatability of P¯s measurements with a single ring gear operated at 60 °C and h¯=1.0

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Measured input shaft bearing and seal power loss from wet and dry bearing loss tests at 60 °C. Also shown are the comparisons formulae of Ref. [20].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Influence of (a) speed and (b) oil level on single gear P¯s at 60 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Effect of bulk lubricant temperature on single gear P¯s at (a) h¯=1.0 and (b) h¯=1.5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Effect of gear teeth on single gear P¯s within a range of Ωr at (a) h¯=0.05, (b) h¯=0.5, (c) h¯=1.0, and (d) h¯=2.0 at 60 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Effect of ϕ on gear pair P¯s within a range of h¯ at (a) Ωr=500 rpm, (b) Ωr=1000 rpm, (c) Ωr=1500 rpm, and (d) Ωr=2000 rpm at 90 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Components of gear pair P¯s at (a) ϕ=0 deg and h¯=0.5, (b) ϕ=0 deg and h¯=1.5, (c) ϕ=90 deg and h¯=0.5, (d) ϕ=90 deg and h¯=1.5, (e) ϕ=180 deg and h¯=0.5, and (f) ϕ=180 deg and h¯=1.5



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In