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Research Papers: Other (Seals, Manufacturing)

Investigation of Static and Dynamic Seal Performances of a Rubber O-Ring

[+] Author and Article Information
Jie Zhang

School of Mechatronic Engineering,
Southwest Petroleum University,
Chengdu 610500, China
e-mail: longmenshao@163.com

Jingxuan Xie

School of Mechatronic Engineering,
Southwest Petroleum University,
Chengdu 610500, China
e-mail: 1870591823@qq.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received August 21, 2017; final manuscript received December 19, 2017; published online February 22, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Alan Palazzolo.

J. Tribol 140(4), 042202 (Feb 22, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: TRIB-17-1326; doi: 10.1115/1.4038959 History: Received August 21, 2017; Revised December 19, 2017

Rubber O-rings are widely applied in the static and dynamic seals of machinery, energy, chemical, aviation, and other fields. Mechanical behavior and sealing performance of the O-ring were investigated in this paper. Effects of precompression amount, fluid pressure, friction coefficient on the static and dynamic sealing performances of the O-ring were studied. The results show that the maximum stress appears on the inside but not surface of the O-ring. The static sealing performance increases with the increasing of fluid pressure and compression amount. Reciprocating dynamic sealing performance of the rubber O-ring is different with its static sealing performance; the stress distribution and deformation are changing in reciprocating motion. Sealing performance in outward stroke is better than it in the inward stroke. Overturn of the O-ring occurs when the friction torque is greater than the torque that caused by fluid pressure in the inward stroke. Distortion, bitten, and fatigue failure are the main failure modes of the O-ring in the dynamic seal. Those results can be used in design, installation, and operation of rubber O-rings in static and dynamic seals.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Samples of rubber and steel plate

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Fig. 2

Friction coefficient between rubber and steel in different lubricating conditions

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Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the calculation model

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Fig. 4

Static seal performance of the O-ring

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Fig. 5

Stress distribution of the O-ring under different fluid pressures

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Fig. 6

Max contact pressure of the O-ring under different fluid pressures

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Fig. 7

Stress distribution of the O-ring under different friction coefficients

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Fig. 8

Max contact pressure of the O-ring under different friction coefficients

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Fig. 9

Stress distribution of the O-ring under different compression amounts

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Fig. 10

Max contact pressure of the O-ring under different compression amounts

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Fig. 11

Typical stress distribution of the O-ring in dynamic seal: (a) outward stroke and (b) inward stroke

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Fig. 12

Stress–time curves of the four points in dynamic seal

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Fig. 13

Max contact pressure curves of the three seal surfaces in dynamic seal

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Fig. 14

Contact pressure curves of the main seal surface under different fluid pressures

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Fig. 15

Frictional force curves of the main seal surface under different fluid pressures

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Fig. 16

Contact pressure curves of the main seal surface under different friction coefficients

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Fig. 17

Frictional force curves of the main seal surface under different friction coefficients

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Fig. 18

Deformation of the O-ring in dynamic seal when f = 0.15

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Fig. 19

Deformation of the O-ring in dynamic seal when f = 0.2

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Fig. 20

Contact pressure curves of the main seal surface under different compression amounts

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Fig. 21

Frictional force curves of the main seal surface under different compression amounts

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Fig. 22

Static seal performance of the O-ring in different grooves

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Fig. 23

Stress distributions of the O-ring in different grooves

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Fig. 24

Stress distribution of the three points in dynamic seal

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Fig. 25

Contact pressure curves of the main seal surface in different grooves

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Fig. 26

Frictional force curves of the main seal surface in different grooves

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