0
Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Assessment of Cavitation Erosion of Gas-Nitrided Cr-Ni-Mo Steels

[+] Author and Article Information
Ion Mitelea

Department of Materials
and Manufacturing Engineering,
Politehnica University Timisoara,
Bd. Mihai Viteazul No.1,
Timisoara 300222, Romania
e-mail: ion.mitelea@upt.ro

Cristian Ghera

Department of Materials
and Manufacturing Engineering,
Politehnica University Timisoara,
Bd. Mihai Viteazul No.1,
Timisoara 300222, Romania
e-mail: cghera@yahoo.com

Ilare Bordeaşu

Mechanical Machines, Equipment
and Transportation,
Politehnica University Timisoara,
Bd. Mihai Viteazul No.1,
Timisoara 300222, Romania
e-mail: ilarica59@gmail.com

Corneliu Crăciunescu

Department of Materials
and Manufacturing Engineering,
Politehnica University Timisoara,
Bd. Mihai Viteazul No.1,
Timisoara 300222, Romania
e-mail: corneliu.craciunescu@upt.ro

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received January 29, 2017; final manuscript received December 21, 2017; published online May 21, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Dae-Eun Kim.

J. Tribol 140(6), 061601 (May 21, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: TRIB-17-1039; doi: 10.1115/1.4039133 History: Received January 29, 2017; Revised December 21, 2017

The effect of the gas-nitriding thermochemical treatment on the cavitation erosion resistance of a Cr-Ni-Mo alloy is analyzed using a piezoceramic vibrating equipment and following the ASTM G32-2010 standard. The evaluation of the cavitation erosion behavior was made based on the analysis of the mean depth of erosion (MDE) and mean depth of erosion rate (MDER), for samples subjected to the cavitation erosion for different times. The surface topography and the structural changes in the marginal layer were analyzed through optical and scanning electron microscopy. Following nitriding the cavitation erosion resistance was about 9.6 times higher compared to the annealed state and about 8.2 times higher compared to the hardened and tempered state.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Espitia, L. A. , and Toro, A. , 2001, “Cavitation Resistance, Microstructure and Surface Topography of Materials Used for Hydraulic Components,” Tribol. Inte., 43(11), pp. 2037–2045. [CrossRef]
Huang, W. H. , Chen, K. C. , and He, J. L. , 2002, “A Study on the Cavitation Resistance of Ion-Nitrided Steel,” Wear, 252(5–6), pp. 459–466. [CrossRef]
Mesa, D. , Pinedo, C. E. , and Tschiptschin, A. , 2010, “Improvement of the Cavitation Erosion Resistance of UNS S31803 Stainless Steel by Duplex Treatment,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 205(5), pp. 1552–1556. [CrossRef]
Mitelea, I. , Ghera, C. , Bordeaşu, I. , and Crăciunescu, C. , 2015, “Ultrasonic Cavitation Erosion of a Duplex Treated 16MnCr5 Steel,” Int. J. Mater. Res., 106(4), pp. 391–397. [CrossRef]
Ghera, C. , Mitelea, I. , Bordeaşu, I. , and Crăciunescu, C. , 2015, “Effect of Heat Treatment on the Surfaces Topography Tested at the Cavitation Erosion From Steel 16MnCr5,” Adv. Mater. Res., 1111, pp. 85–90. [CrossRef]
Ghera, C. , Mitelea, I. , Bordeaşu, I. , and Crăciunescu, C. , 2015, “Improvement of Cavitation Erosion Resistance of a Low Alloyed Steel 16MnCr5 Through Work Hardening,” METAL: 24th International Conference on Metallurgy and Materials, Brno, Czech Republic, June 3–5, pp. 661–666. http://konsys2.tanger.cz/files/proceedings/21/papers/4072.pdf
Godoy, G. C. , Mancosu, R. D. , Lima, M. M. , Brandão, D. , Housden, J. , and Avelar-Batista Wilson, J. C. , 2006, “Influence of Plasma Nitriding and PAPVD Cr1−xNx Coating on the Cavitation Erosion Resistance of an AISI 1045 Steel,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 200(18–19), pp. 5370–5378. [CrossRef]
Han, S. , Lin, J. H. , Kuo, J. J. , He, J. L. , and Shih, H. C. , 2002, “The Cavitation-Erosion Phenomenon of Chromium Nitride Coatings Deposited Using Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition on Steel,” Surf. Coatings Technol., 161(1), pp. 20–25. [CrossRef]
Cheng, F. T. , Shi, P. , and Man, H. C. , 2003, “Cavitation Erosion Resistance of Heat-Treated NiTi,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A339(1–2), pp. 312–317. [CrossRef]
Man, H. C. , Zhang, S. , Yue, T. M. , and Cheng, F. , 2001, “Laser Surface Alloying of NiCrSiB on Al6061 Aluminum Alloy,” Surf. Coatings Technol., 148(2–3), pp. 136–142. [CrossRef]
Tomlinson, W. J. , and Talks, M. G. , 1990, “Laser Surface Processing and the Cavitation Erosion of a 16 Wt% Cr White Cast Iron,” Wear, 139(2), pp. 269–284. [CrossRef]
Chang, J. T. , Yeh, C. H. , He, J. L. , and Chen, K. C. , 2003, “Cavitation Erosion and Corrosion Behavior of Ni–Al Intermetallic Coatings,” Wear, 255(1–6), pp. 162–169. [CrossRef]
Zhou, K. S. , and Herman, H. , 1982, “Cavitation Erosion of Titanium and Ti36A134V: Effects of Nitriding,” Wear, 80(1), pp. 101–113. [CrossRef]
da Silva, F. J. , Marinho, R. R. , Paes, M. , and Franco, S. D. , 2013, “Cavitation Erosion Behavior of Ion-Nitrided 34CrAlNi7 Steel With Different Microstructures,” Wear, 304(1–2), pp. 183–190. [CrossRef]
ASTM, 2010, “Standard Test Method for Cavitation Erosion Using Vibratory Apparatus,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, Standard No. ASTM G32-09. https://www.astm.org/DATABASE.CART/HISTORICAL/G32-09.htm
Chahine, G. , Franc, J.-P. , and Karimi, A. , 2014, “Laboratory Testing Methods of Cavitation,” Advanced Experimental and Numerical Techniques for Cavitation Erosion Prediction, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 21–35.
Yamaguchi, A. , Kazama, T. , Inoue, K. , and Onoue, J. , 2001, “Comparison of Cavitation Erosion Test Results Between Vibratory and Cavitating Jet Methods,” Int. J. Fluid Power, 2(1), pp. 25–30. [CrossRef]
Steller, J. , and Giren, B. , 2015, International Cavitation Erosion Test. Final Report, Wydawnictwa Instytutu Maszyn Przepływowych, Gdańsk, Poland.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Cyclogram of the nitriding process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Cyclogram of the hardening and tempering treatment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Microstructure of annealed 34CrNiMo6 steel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Microstructure of the hardened and tempered samples

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Microstructure of the transition between the nitrided layer and the sorbite core (×500)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

X-ray diffraction spectra for the samples in hardened and tempered (a) and in gas nitrided state (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Dispersion band for the samples in annealed (a), hardened and tempered (b), and nitrided state (c). A summary of the main parameters for each state is shown in Table 6. (a) Dispersion band for the annealed samples, (b) dispersion band for the hardened and tempered samples, and (c) dispersion band for the gas nitrided samples. The notations in the figures are: P99S(xc), P95S(xc)—upper limit of the tolerance interval; P99I(xc) P95I(xc)—lower limit of the tolerance interval; y1, y2, y3—MDE values for the three samples in one set; ym—arithmetic mean of MDE for the three samples in one set and YmE(xc)—regression fitting curve. The dashed lines are the limits of the tolerance interval.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Mean depth of erosion as a function of the cavitation erosion time (MDE(t)) for the samples annealed (1), hardened and tempered (2), and nitrided (3)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Mean depth of erosion rate as a function of the cavitation erosion time (MDER(t)) for the samples with different treatment applied

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Macrographic image of the annealed sample

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Microscopic image of the annealed sample showing large cavities due to the pronounced erosion of the surface (a) surface topography and (b) details of the cavitation pits

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Macrographic image of the hardened and tempered sample

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Hardness gradient across the surface layer of the gas nitrided sample

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Microscopic image of the hardened and tempered sample showing reduced effects on the erode surface compared to the annealed sample (Fig. 12). (a) Surface topography and (b) details of the cavitation pits.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Macrographic image of the nitrided sample

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Microscopic image of the nitrided sample revealing the positive effect on diminishing the number and severity of the pits compared to the annealed and to the hardened/tempered samples. (a) Surface topography and (b) details of the cavitation pits.

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In