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Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Tribological Properties of Al 7075 Alloy and 7075/Al2O3 Composite Under Two-Body Abrasion: A Statistical Approach

[+] Author and Article Information
Santanu Sardar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Engineering Science
and Technology, Shibpur,
Howrah 711103, West Bengal, India

Santanu Kumar Karmakar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Engineering Science
and Technology, Shibpur,
Howrah 711103, West Bengal, India
e-mails: skk@mech.iiests.ac.in;
skk.besus@gmail.com

Debdulal Das

Department of Metallurgy and Materials
Engineering,
Indian Institute of Engineering Science
and Technology, Shibpur,
Howrah 711103, West Bengal, India

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received September 26, 2017; final manuscript received February 5, 2018; published online April 3, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Dae-Eun Kim.

J. Tribol 140(5), 051602 (Apr 03, 2018) (23 pages) Paper No: TRIB-17-1372; doi: 10.1115/1.4039410 History: Received September 26, 2017; Revised February 05, 2018

Tribological properties, i.e., wear rate, coefficient of friction (COF), and roughness of worn surfaces of an Al-Mg-Zn-Cu alloy and its composite reinforced with 20 wt % Al2O3 particles developed by stir-casting method have been studied and compared under two-body abrasion considering four independent control factors, i.e., load, abrasive grit size, sliding distance, and velocity each at three different levels. Design of test conditions and analyses of output responses have been performed employing standard Taguchi L27 orthogonal array, signal-to-noise ratio, analysis of variance technique, and regression method. Irrespective of wear conditions, composite exhibits lower wear rate and reduced COF with reference to base alloy owing to the load bearing ability and better wear resistance capability of Al2O3 particles. Roughness of worn surfaces of composite is, however, found to be higher over base alloy due to nonuniform abrasion in case of composite that generates the protruded Al2O3 particles on contact surfaces as the surrounding soft matrix is easily removed. For all three tribo-responses of both materials, the most influential factor is identified as grit size followed by load and then, grit size-load interaction except for the roughness of worn surfaces where the influence of sliding distance is also considerable. Linear regression models with excellent predictability have been developed for all tribo-characteristics separately for base alloy and composite. The predominant mechanisms of abrasion are identified as plowing and microcutting for base alloy, but delamination for composite.

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Figures

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Fig. 4

Main effects plots of (a) S/N ratios and (b) means of wear rate (in mm3 m−1) of base alloy

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Fig. 5

Main effects plots of (a) S/N ratios and (b) means of wear rate (in mm3 m−1) of composite

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Fig. 1

Representative optical microstructures of as-cast (a) base alloy and (b) composite

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Fig. 2

Representative SEM micrographs of (a) base alloy and (b) composite materials. (c) and (d) present typical EDS profile along with results of semi-quantitative elemental analyses taken from the area marked as 1 and 2, respectively, in (a).

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Fig. 3

XRD line profiles of as-cast base alloy and composite

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Fig. 10

Three-dimensional topographies of worn surfaces of ((a), (c), and (e)) base alloy and ((b), (d), and (f)) composite specimens tested against different abrasive grit sizes keeping other factors fixed. (g) compares surface profiles perpendicular to the sliding direction roughly marked by white line on the 3D images.

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Fig. 6

Interaction plots of wear rate (in mm3 m−1) with load (in Newton), SiC grit size, sliding distance (in meters) and sliding velocity (in m s−1) of (a) base alloy and (b) composite

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Fig. 7

Main effects plots of (a) S/N ratios and (b) means of COF of base alloy

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Fig. 8

Main effects plots of (a) S/N ratios and (b) means of COF of composite

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Fig. 9

Interaction plots of COF with load (in Newton), SiC grit size, sliding distance (in meters) and sliding velocity (in m s−1) of (a) base alloy and (b) composite

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Fig. 14

Contour plots with respect to load and abrasive grit size related to ((a) and (b)) wear rate, ((c) and (d)) COF and ((e) and (f)) roughness of worn surfaces for ((a), (c), and (e)) of base alloy and ((b), (d), and (f)) composite

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Fig. 15

Experimental and predicted values of ((a) and (b)) wear rate, ((c) and (d)) COF and ((e) and (f)) roughness of worn surfaces (Ra) for ((a), (c), and (e)) base ally and ((b), (d), and (f)) composite

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Fig. 11

Main effects plots of (a) S/N ratios and (b) means of roughness of worn surfaces (Ra, in μm) of base alloy

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Fig. 12

Main effects plots of (a) S/N ratios and (b) means of roughness of worn surfaces (Ra, in μm) of composite

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Fig. 13

Interaction plots of roughness of worn surfaces (Ra) with load (in Newton), SiC grit size, sliding distance (in meters) and sliding velocity (in m s−1) of (a) base alloy and (b) composite

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Fig. 16

Representative SEM micrographs of worn surfaces of ((a) and (b)) base alloy and ((c) and (d)) composite developed under the load of 40 N, grit size of 400, sliding distance of 20 m and sliding velocity of 1.0 m s−1

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Fig. 17

Representative SEM micrographs of worn surfaces of ((a) and (b)) base alloy and ((c) and (d)) composite developed under the load of 40 N, grit size of 1000, sliding distance of 20 m and sliding velocity of 1.0 m s−1

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Fig. 18

Representative SEM micrographs of wear debris of ((a) and (b)) base alloy and ((c) and (d)) composite generated under the load of 40 N, grit size of 400, sliding distance of 20 m and sliding velocity of 1.0 m s−1

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Fig. 19

Representative SEM micrographs of wear debris of ((a) and (b)) base alloy and ((c) and (d)) composite generated under the load of 40 N, grit size of 1000, sliding distance of 20 m and sliding velocity of 1.0 m s−1

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