0
Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Effects of Microstructure of Quasicrystal Alloys on Their Mechanical and Tribological Performance

[+] Author and Article Information
Kyungjun Lee

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843-3123
e-mail: lee23834@tamu.edu

Wei Dai

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843
e-mail: daiwei7@tamu.edu

Donald Naugle

Department of Physics & Astronomy,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843
e-mail: naugle@physics.tamu.edu

Hong Liang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843
e-mail: hliang@tamu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received May 28, 2017; final manuscript received February 23, 2018; published online April 10, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Min Zou.

J. Tribol 140(5), 051605 (Apr 10, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: TRIB-17-1201; doi: 10.1115/1.4039528 History: Received May 28, 2017; Revised February 23, 2018

The current design of materials against wear considers hardness as the sole material property. As a result, the brittleness associated with increased hardness leads to severe damage. The purpose of this research is to understand the nature of conflicts between hardness and toughness of a new alloy composite. First, we designed Al-Cu-Fe alloys containing crystal structures of λ, β, and quasi-crystalline i-phase. These and their combination with others lead to a set of alloys with various hardness and fracture toughness. Experimental study was carried out using a noble and hard tungsten carbide (WC) ball against sample disks. The WC ball did not produce any wear. The wear rate of those alloys was found to be dependent not only on their hardness, but also the toughness, an alternative to the well-accepted Archard-based equations.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Hase, T. , Ohtagaki, T. , Yamaguchi, M. , Ikeo, N. , and Mukai, T. , 2016, “Effect of Aluminum or Zinc Solute Addition on Enhancing Impact Fracture Toughness in Mg–Ca Alloys,” Acta Mater., 104, pp. 283–294. [CrossRef]
Liu, Y. , Wang, Y.-M. , and Liu, L. , 2015, “Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior and Fracture Toughness in a Ni-Free ZrCuFeAlAg Bulk Metallic Glass,” Acta Mater., 92, pp. 209–219. [CrossRef]
Mikula, M. , Plašienka, D. , Sangiovanni, D. G. , Sahul, M. , Roch, T. , Truchlý, M. , Gregor, M. , Čaplovič, L. U. , Plecenik, A. , and Kúš, P. , 2016, “Toughness Enhancement in Highly NbN-Alloyed Ti-Al-N Hard Coatings,” Acta Mater., 121, pp. 59–67. [CrossRef]
Studart, A. R. , 2012, “Towards High‐Performance Bioinspired Composites,” Adv. Mater., 24(37), pp. 5024–5044. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Villaggio, P. , 2001, “Wear of an Elastic Block,” Meccanica, 36(3), pp. 243–250. [CrossRef]
Bowden, F. P. , and Tabor, D. , 1939, “The Area of Contact Between Stationary and Between Moving Surfaces,” Proc. R. Soc. London. Ser. A, 169(938), pp. 391–413. [CrossRef]
Holm, R. , and Heijne, A. V. , 1946, Electric Contacts, H. Geber, Stockholm, Sweden.
Archard, J. F. , 1953, “Contact and Rubbing of Flat Surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys., 24(8), pp. 981–988. [CrossRef]
Kassman, Å. , Jacobson, S. , Erickson, L. , Hedenqvist, P. , and Olsson, M. , 1991, “A New Test Method for the Intrinsic Abrasion Resistance of Thin Coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 50(1), pp. 75–84. [CrossRef]
Rai, V. K. , Srivastava, R. , Nath, S. K. , and Ray, S. , 1999, “Wear in Cast Titanium Carbide Reinforced Ferrous Composites Under Dry Sliding,” Wear, 231(2), pp. 265–271. [CrossRef]
Fouvry, S. , and Kapsa, P. , 2001, “An Energy Description of Hard Coating Wear Mechanisms,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 138(2–3), pp. 141–148. [CrossRef]
Liu, R. , and Li, D. Y. , 2001, “Modification of Archard's Equation by Taking Account of Elastic/Pseudoelastic Properties of Materials,” Wear, 251(1–12), pp. 956–964. [CrossRef]
Yang, L. J. , 2003, “Wear Coefficient Equation for Aluminium-Based Matrix Composites Against Steel Disc,” Wear, 255(1–6), pp. 579–592. [CrossRef]
Fillot, N. , Iordanoff, I. , and Berthier, Y. , 2007, “Wear Modeling and the Third Body Concept,” Wear, 262(7–8), pp. 949–957. [CrossRef]
Savio, G. , Meneghello, R. , and Concheri, G. , 2009, “A Surface Roughness Predictive Model in Deterministic Polishing of Ground Glass Moulds,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 49(1), pp. 1–7. [CrossRef]
Mishina, H. , and Hase, A. , 2013, “Wear Equation for Adhesive Wear Established Through Elementary Process of Wear,” Wear, 308(1–2), pp. 186–192. [CrossRef]
Hu, J. , Li, D. , and Llewellyn, R. , 2007, “Synergistic Effects of Microstructure and Abrasion Condition on Abrasive Wear of Composites—A Modeling Study,” Wear, 263(1–6), pp. 218–227. [CrossRef]
Jiang, J. , Sheng, F. , and Ren, F. , 1998, “Modelling of Two-Body Abrasive Wear Under Multiple Contact Conditions,” Wear, 217(1), pp. 35–45. [CrossRef]
Tung, S. C. , and Huang, Y. , 2004, “Modeling of Abrasive Wear in a Piston Ring and Engine Cylinder Bore System,” Tribol. Trans., 47(1), pp. 17–22. [CrossRef]
Axen, N. , and Jacobson, S. , 1994, “A Model for the Abrasive Wear Resistance of Multiphase Materials,” Wear, 174(1–2), pp. 187–199. [CrossRef]
Ozaydin, M. F. , and Liang, H. , 2016, “Design and Synthesis of a Geopolymer-Enhanced Quasi-Crystalline Composite for Resisting Wear and Corrosion,” ASME J. Tribol., 138(2), p. 021601. [CrossRef]
Mohseni, H. , Nandwana, P. , Tsoi, A. , Banerjee, R. , and Scharf, T. , 2015, “In Situ Nitrided Titanium Alloys: Microstructural Evolution During Solidification and Wear,” Acta Mater., 83, pp. 61–74. [CrossRef]
Barceinas-Sanchez, J. D. O. , and Rainforth, W. , 1998, “On the Role of Plastic Deformation During the Mild Wear of Alumina,” Acta Mater., 46(18), pp. 6475–6483. [CrossRef]
Ortiz-Merino, J. L. , and Todd, R. I. , 2005, “Relationship Between Wear Rate, Surface Pullout and Microstructure During Abrasive Wear of Alumina and Alumina/SiC Nanocomposites,” Acta Mater., 53(12), pp. 3345–3357. [CrossRef]
Xiao, H. , Shin, Y. , Li, P. , Sue, H.-J. , and Liang, H. , 2014, “A New Composite Designed to Resist Wear,” Mater. Des., 63, pp. 749–756. [CrossRef]
Yin, X. , and Komvopoulos, K. , 2010, “An Adhesive Wear Model of Fractal Surfaces in Normal Contact,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 47(7–8), pp. 912–921. [CrossRef]
Taskin, M. , Caligulu, U. , and Gur, A. K. , 2008, “Modeling Adhesive Wear Resistance of Al-Si-Mg-/SiCp PM Compacts Fabricated by Hot Pressing Process, by Means of ANN,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 37(7–8), pp. 715–721. [CrossRef]
Grujicic, M. , Sellappan, V. , Omar, M. , Seyr, N. , Obieglo, A. , Erdmann, M. , and Holzleitner, J. , 2008, “An Overview of the Polymer-to-Metal Direct-Adhesion Hybrid Technologies for Load-Bearing Automotive Components,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 197(1–3), pp. 363–373. [CrossRef]
Deli, G. , Qunji, X. , and Hongli, W. , 1991, “Physical Models of Adhesive Wear of Polytetrafluoroethylene and Its Composites,” Wear, 147(1), pp. 9–24. [CrossRef]
Fillot, N. , Iordanoff, I. , and Berthier, Y. , 2007, “Modelling Third Body Flows With a Discrete Element Method—A Tool for Understanding Wear With Adhesive Particles,” Tribol. Int., 40(6), pp. 973–981. [CrossRef]
Ding, J. , 2009, “A Multi-Scale Model for Fretting Wear With Oxidation-Debris Effects,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 223(7), pp. 1019–1031. [CrossRef]
McColl, I. R. , Ding, J. , and Leen, S. B. , 2004, “Finite Element Simulation and Experimental Validation of Fretting Wear,” Wear, 256(11–12), pp. 1114–1127. [CrossRef]
Fouvry, S. , Wendler, B. , Liskiewicz, T. , Dudek, M. , and Kolodziejczyk, L. , 2004, “Fretting Wear Analysis of TiC/VC Multilayered Hard Coatings: Experiments and Modelling Approaches,” Wear, 257(7–8), pp. 641–653. [CrossRef]
Geringer, J. , and Macdonald, D. D. , 2012, “Modeling Fretting-Corrosion Wear of 316 L SS Against Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) With the Point Defect Model: Fundamental Theory, Assessment, and Outlook,” Electrochim. Acta, 79, pp. 17–30. [CrossRef]
ElTobgy, M. , Ng, E. , and Elbestawi, M. , 2005, “Finite Element Modeling of Erosive Wear,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 45(11), pp. 1337–1346. [CrossRef]
Hebbar, A. , Ouinas, D. , Lousdad, A. , and Bachir Bouiadjra, B. , 2010, “Erosive Wear Modeling of Polymeric Composite Materials,” J. Reinf. Plast. Compos., 29(12), pp. 1893–1899. [CrossRef]
Bingley, M. , and O'Flynn, D. , 2005, “Examination and Comparison of Various Erosive Wear Models,” Wear, 258(1–4), pp. 511–525. [CrossRef]
Yaghtin, A. H. , Salahinejad, E. , Khosravifard, A. , Araghi, A. , and Akhbarizadeh, A. , 2015, “Corrosive Wear Behavior of Chromium Carbide Coatings Deposited by Air Plasma Spraying,” Ceram. Int., 41(6), pp. 7916–7920. [CrossRef]
Li, Q. , Lu, H. , Cui, J. , An, M. , and Li, D. , 2016, “Electrodeposition of Nanocrystalline Zinc on Steel for Enhanced Resistance to Corrosive Wear,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 304, pp. 567–573. [CrossRef]
Giourntas, L. , Hodgkiess, T. , and Galloway, A. M. , 2015, “Enhanced Approach of Assessing the Corrosive Wear of Engineering Materials Under Impingement,” Wear, 338–339, pp. 155–163. [CrossRef]
Itoga, M. , Aoki, S. , Suzuki, A. , Yoshida, Y. , Fujinami, Y. , and Masuko, M. , 2016, “Toward Resolving Anxiety About the Accelerated Corrosive Wear of Steel Lubricated With the Fluorine-Containing Ionic Liquids at Elevated Temperature,” Tribol. Int., 93(Pt. B), pp. 640–650. [CrossRef]
Duan, D. , Hu, Z. , Jiang, S. , Hou, S. , and Li, S. , 2014, “Corrosive Wear Behaviors of Carbon Steels in Oil-Water Fluid,” Tribol. Trans., 57(2), pp. 317–323. [CrossRef]
Svanidze, E. , Besara, T. , Ozaydin, M. F. , Tiwary, C. S. , Wang, J. K. , Radhakrishnan, S. , Mani, S. , Xin, Y. , Han, K. , Liang, H. , Siegrist, T. , Ajayan, P. M. , and Morosan, E. , 2016, “High Hardness in the Biocompatible Intermetallic Compound β-Ti3Au,” Sci. Adv., 2(7), p. e1600319. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Huitink, D. , Liang, H. , Peng, L. , and Ribeiro, R. , 2009, “In Situ Observation of Stress-Induced Au-Si Phase Transformation,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 94(18), p. 183111. [CrossRef]
Ribeiro, R. , Liang, H. , Shan, Z. , and Minor, A. M. , 2007, “In Situ Observation of Nano-Abrasive Wear,” Wear, 263(7–12), pp. 1556–1559. [CrossRef]
Lee, K. , Hsu, J. , Naugle, D. , and Liang, H. , 2016, “Multi-Phase Quasicrystalline Alloys for Superior Wear Resistance,” Mater. Des., 108, pp. 440–447. [CrossRef]
Chen, H.-L. , Du, Y. , Xu, H. , and Xiong, W. , 2009, “Experimental Investigation and Thermodynamic Modeling of the Ternary Al–Cu–Fe System,” J. Mater. Res., 24(10), pp. 3154–3164. [CrossRef]
Göğebakan, M. , Avar, B. , and Uzun, O. , 2009, “Quasicrystalline Phase Formation in the Conventionally Solidified Al–Cu–Fe System,” Mater. Sci.-Poland, 27(3), pp. 919–926. http://www.materialsscience.pwr.wroc.pl/bi/vol27no3/articles/ms_32goge_2008_501.pdf
Raghavan, V. , 2005, “Al-Cu-Fe (Aluminum-Copper-Iron),” J. Phase Equilib. Diffus., 26(1), pp. 59–64. [CrossRef]
Raghavan, V. , 2007, “Al-Cu-Fe-Si (Aluminum-Copper-Iron-Silicon),” J. Phase Equilib. Diffus., 28(2), pp. 209–210. [CrossRef]
Turquier, F. , Cojocaru, V. , Stir, M. , Nicula, R. , Lathe, C. , and Burkel, E. , 2004, “Formation and Stability of Single-Phase Al-Cu-Fe Quasicrystals Under Pressure,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci., 8(2), pp. 147–151. http://www.ipme.ru/e-journals/RAMS/no_2804/turquier.pdf

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Fabrication of samples: (a) ternary Al-Cu-Fe alloy phase diagram at 600 °C and (b) a processing sequence for a formation of six different Al-Cu-Fe system samples

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of experimental wear test with 6 mm tungsten carbide ball under an unlubricated and reciprocating linear mode at room temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Characterization of samples (I–V): (a) SEM micrographs showing phase distribution of each sample (I–V) and (b) comparison chart of XRD patterns of five samples. (c) SEM micrographs for porosity analysis of each sample (I–VI).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Mechanical properties and tribological performance of samples (I–V). (a) Hardness and fracture toughness results of five samples, (b) indentations of samples containing majority λ, β, and i-phase after indentation test at the same load (1000 g), (c) microstructure and measured profiles of worn surfaces for five samples (I–V), (d) wear volume losses of each samples after testing. Sample I contains the lambda-phase, sample II has the beta-phase, sample III includes the i-phase, sample IV is the (lambda + beta)-phase, and sample V is the (beta + i)-phase. And SEM images of a tungsten carbide ball with wear scar (after testing of sample I), and (e) variation of friction coefficient according to sliding distance in five samples (I–V).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Relationships between mechanical properties and tribological performance: (a) Vickers microhardness and fracture toughness plotted as a function of wear rate in five samples (I–V). (b) Wear rate according to volume fraction of single lambda-phase and (c) wear rate according to volume fraction of single i-phase.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

A plot of the fracture toughness versus the Vickers hardness for six samples

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In