Research Papers: Contact Mechanics

Evaluation of Rolling Contact Fatigue of a Carburized Wind Turbine Gear Considering the Residual Stress and Hardness Gradient

[+] Author and Article Information
Wei Wang, Caichao Zhu, Heli Liu, Zhangdong Sun

State Key Laboratory of
Mechanical Transmissions,
Chongqing University,
Chongqing 400030, China

Huaiju Liu

State Key Laboratory of
Mechanical Transmissions,
Chongqing University,
Chongqing 400030, China
e-mail: huaijuliu@cqu.edu.cn

Philippe Bocher

Mechanical Engineering Department,
École de technologie supérieure (ÉTS),
1100 Notre-Dame Ouest,
Montreal, QC H3C1K3, Canada

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received January 10, 2018; final manuscript received April 13, 2018; published online May 14, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Longqiu Li.

J. Tribol 140(6), 061401 (May 14, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: TRIB-18-1014; doi: 10.1115/1.4040052 History: Received January 10, 2018; Revised April 13, 2018

Carburized gears are applied extensively in large-scale heavy duty machines such as wind turbines. The carburizing and quenching processes not only introduce variations of hardness from the case to the core but also generate a residual stress distribution, both of which affect the rolling contact fatigue (RCF) during repeated gear meshing. The influence of residual stress distribution on the RCF risk of a carburized wind turbine gear is investigated in the present work. The concept of RCF failure risk is defined by combining the local material strength and the multi-axial stress condition resulting from the contact. The Dang Van multi-axial fatigue criterion is applied. The applied stress field is calculated through an elastic-plastic contact finite element model. Residual stress distribution and the hardness profile are measured and compared with existed empirical formula. Based upon the Pavlina–Tyne relationship between the hardness and the yield strength, the gradient of the local material strength is considered in the calculation of the RCF failure risk. Effects of the initial residual stress peak value and its corresponding depth position are studied. Numerical results reveal that compressive residual stress (CRS) is beneficial to RCF fatigue life while tensile residual stress (TRS) increases the RCF failure risk. Under heavy load conditions where plasticity occurs, the accumulation of the plastic strain within the substrate is significantly affected by the initial residual stress distribution.

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Fig. 1

The contact model simplification

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Fig. 2

Distributions of the maximum Hertzian pressure along the line of action

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Fig. 3

Distribution of the hardness gradient from case to the core

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Fig. 4

Various residual stress components with a gear tooth profile

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Fig. 5

Curves of residual stress, representing σx,r and σz,r

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Fig. 6

Distribution of the residual stress governed by VCRS,max and DCRS,max

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Fig. 7

The residual stress distribution with different DCRS,max (left) and VCRS,max (right)

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Fig. 8

The finite element elastic-plastic contact model

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Fig. 9

Distribution of the yield strength based on the Pavlina–Tyne relation

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Fig. 10

The elastic-plastic material constitutive model

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Fig. 11

The responds between normal stress and normal strain

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Fig. 12

Distribution of the Dang Van equivalent stress under nominal conditions (left) and 2.1 times the nominal condition (right)

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Fig. 13

The Aff along the direction of depth with different initial condition

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Fig. 14

The distribution of Aff (left), the Aff,max and the depth of Aff,max versus DCRS,max (right) under the various residual profiles displayed in Fig. 7 (left)

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Fig. 15

The distribution of Aff (left), the Aff,max and the depth of Aff,max versus VCRS,max(right) under the various residual profiles displayed in Fig. 7 (right)

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Fig. 16

The distribution of Aff under different normal load

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Fig. 17

Maximum value (left) and depth (right) of Aff,max under the different normal load with three initial conditions and after five loadings

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Fig. 18

The variation of the equivalent plastic strain over each cycle for three initial residual stress condition under the load T = 2.1T0

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Fig. 19

The distribution of equivalent plastic strain (left) and Aff (right) with load T/T0 = 2.1



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