0
Research Papers: Contact Mechanics

Effect of Residual Stresses on Microstructural Evolution Due to Rolling Contact Fatigue

[+] Author and Article Information
Dallin Morris

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: morri295@purdue.edu

Farshid Sadeghi

Cummins Distinguished Professor of Mechanical
Engineering,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: sadeghi@purdue.edu

Yong-Ching Chen

Materials Engineering for China Technical
Center,
Cummins Technical Center,
1900 McKinley Ave,
Columbus, IN 47201
e-mail: yong-ching.c.chen@cummins.com

Chinpei Wang

Cummins Technical Center,
R&T Cummins, Inc.,
1900 McKinley Ave,
Columbus, IN 47201
e-mail: chinpei.wang@cummins.com

Ben Wang

Metallurgical Engineering,
Cummins Technical Center,
1900 McKinley Ave,
Columbus, IN 47201
e-mail: wang.ben@cummins.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received January 30, 2018; final manuscript received April 9, 2018; published online May 21, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Longqiu Li.

J. Tribol 140(6), 061402 (May 21, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: TRIB-18-1047; doi: 10.1115/1.4040051 History: Received January 30, 2018; Revised April 09, 2018

Rolling contact fatigue (RCF) induces a complex subsurface stress state, which produces significant microstructural alterations within bearing steels. A novel modeling approach is presented in this paper, which investigates the effects of microstructural deterioration, phase transformations, and residual stress (RS) formation occurring within bearing steels subject to RCF. The continuum damage mechanics approach was implemented to capture microstructural decay. State and dissipation functions corresponding to the damage mechanics process were used via an energy criterion to predict the phase transformations of retained austenite (RA). Experimental measurements for RA decomposition and corresponding RS were combined to produce a function providing RS formation as a function of RA decomposition and stress history within the material. Microstructural decay, phase transformations, and internal stresses were implemented within a two-dimensional (2D) finite element analysis (FEA) line contact model to investigate variation in microstructural alterations due to RSs present within the material. In order to verify the model developed for this investigation, initial simulations were performed implementing conditions of previously published experimental work and directly comparing to observed RA decomposition and RS formation in 52100 steel deep groove ball bearings. The finite element model developed was then used to implement various RS profiles commonly observed due to manufacturing processes such as laser-shot peening and carburizing. It was found that some RS profiles are beneficial in altering RA decomposition patterns and increasing life while others proved less advantageous.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Huang, M. , He, B. , and Van der Zwaag, S. , 2015, “Effect of Free Surface on Martensitic Transformation in Individual Retained Austenite Grains,” International Conference on Solid–Solid Phase Transformation in Inorganic Materials (PTM 2015), Whistler, BC, Canada, June 28–July 3. http://hub.hku.hk/handle/10722/214847
Singh, K. P. , and Parr, J. G. , 1961, “Thermodynamics of the Martensite Transformation,” Acta Metall., 9(12), pp. 1073–1074. [CrossRef]
Park, H. S. , Han, J. C. , Lim, N. S. , Seol, J.-B. , and Park, C. G. , 2015, “Nano-Scale Observation on the Transformation Behavior and Mechanical Stability of Individual Retained Austenite in CMnSiAl TRIP Steels,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 627, pp. 262–269. [CrossRef]
Perlade, A. , Bouaziz, O. , and Furnemont, Q. , 2003, “A Physically Based Model for TRIP-Aided Carbon Steels Behaviour,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 356(1–2), pp. 145–152. [CrossRef]
Wang, J. , and Van Der Zwaag, S. , 2001, “Stabilization Mechanisms of Retained Austenite in Transformation-Induced Plasticity Steel,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 32(6), pp. 1527–1539. [CrossRef]
Dan, W. J. , Zhang, W. G. , Li, S. H. , and Lin, Z. Q. , 2007, “A Model for Strain-Induced Martensitic Transformation of TRIP Steel With Strain Rate,” Comput. Mater. Sci., 40(2), pp. 101–107. [CrossRef]
Blondé, R. , Jimenez-Melero, E. , Zhao, L. , Wright, J. P. , Brück, E. , der Zwaag, S. , and Van Dijk, N. H. , 2012, “High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction Study on the Temperature-Dependent Mechanical Stability of Retained Austenite in Low-Alloyed TRIP Steels,” Acta Mater., 60(2), pp. 565–577. [CrossRef]
Oila, A. , Shaw, B. A. , Aylott, C. J. , and Bull, S. J. , 2005, “Martensite Decay in Micropitted Gears,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J, 219(2), pp. 77–83. [CrossRef]
Swahn, H. , Becker, P. C. , and Vingsbo, O. , 1976, “Martensite Decay During Rolling Contact Fatigue in Ball Bearings,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 7(8), pp. 1099–1110. [CrossRef]
Becker, P. C. , 1981, “Microstructural Changes Around Non-Metallic Inclusions Caused by Rolling-Contact Fatigue of Ball-Bearing Steels,” Met. Technol., 8(1), pp. 234–243. [CrossRef]
Voskamp, A. P. , Österlund, R. , Becker, P. C. , and Vingsbo, O. , 1980, “Gradual Changes in Residual Stress and Microstructure During Contact Fatigue in Ball Bearings,” Met. Technol., 7(1), pp. 14–21. [CrossRef]
Šmeļova, V. , Schwedt, A. , Wang, L. , Holweger, W. , and Mayer, J. , 2017, “Electron Microscopy Investigations of Microstructural Alterations Due to Classical Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF) in Martensitic AISI 52100 Bearing Steel,” Int. J. Fatigue, 98, pp. 142–154. [CrossRef]
Muro, H. , and Tsushima, N. , 1970, “Microstructural, Microhardness and Residual Stress Changes Due to Rolling Contact,” Wear, 15(5), pp. 309–330. [CrossRef]
Morris, D. , Sadeghi, F. , Chen, Y.-C. , Wang, C. , and Wang, B. , 2018, “A Novel Approach for Modeling Retained Austenite Transformations During Rolling Contact Fatigue,” Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct., 41(4), pp. 831–843.
Voskamp, A. P. , 1985, “Material Response to Rolling Contact Loading,” ASME J. Tribol., 107(3), pp. 359–364. [CrossRef]
Xiao, Y.-C. , Li, S. , and Gao, Z. , 1998, “A Continuum Damage Mechanics Model for High Cycle Fatigue,” Int. J. Fatigue, 20(7), pp. 503–508. [CrossRef]
Raje, N. , Sadeghi, F. , and Rateick, R. G. , 2008, “A Statistical Damage Mechanics Model for Subsurface Initiated Spalling in Rolling Contacts,” ASME J. Tribol., 130(4), p. 042201. [CrossRef]
Raje, N. , Slack, T. , and Sadeghi, F. , 2009, “A Discrete Damage Mechanics Model for High Cycle Fatigue in Polycrystalline Materials Subject to Rolling Contact,” Int. J. Fatigue, 31(2), pp. 346–360. [CrossRef]
Bomidi, J. A. R. , Weinzapfel, N. , Sadeghi, F. , Liebel, A. , and Weber, J. , 2013, “An Improved Approach for 3D Rolling Contact Fatigue Simulations With Microstructure Topology,” Tribol. Trans., 56(3), pp. 385–399. [CrossRef]
Slack, T. , and Sadeghi, F. , 2010, “Explicit Finite Element Modeling of Subsurface Initiated Spalling in Rolling Contacts,” Tribol. Int., 43(9), pp. 1693–1702. [CrossRef]
Shen, Y. , Moghadam, S. M. , Sadeghi, F. , Paulson, K. , and Trice, R. W. , 2015, “Effect of Retained Austenite–Compressive Residual Stresses on Rolling Contact Fatigue Life of Carburized AISI 8620 Steel,” Int. J. Fatigue, 75, pp. 135–144. [CrossRef]
Capdevila, C. , Caballero, F. G. , and de Andrés, C. , 2003, “Analysis of Effect of Alloying Elements on Martensite Start Temperature of Steels,” Mater. Sci. Technol., 19(5), pp. 581–586. [CrossRef]
Yang, H.-S. , and Bhadeshia, H. , 2009, “Austenite Grain Size and the Martensite-Start Temperature,” Scr. Mater., 60(7), pp. 493–495. [CrossRef]
Zener, C. , 1946, “Kinetics of the Decomposition of Austenite,” Trans. AIME, 42(1), pp. 550–595. http://library.aimehq.org/library/books/Metals%20Technology,%201946,%20Vol.%20XIII/T.P.%201925.pdf
Cohen, M. , Machlin, E. S. , and Paranjpe, V. G. , 1950, “Thermodynamics in Physical Metallurgy,” National Metal Congress and Exposition, Cleveland, OH, Oct. 15–21, p. 264.
Patel, J. R. , and Cohen, M. , 1953, “Criterion for the Action of Applied Stress in the Martensitic Transformation,” Acta Metall., 1(5), pp. 531–538. [CrossRef]
Moyer, J. M. , and Ansell, G. S. , 1975, “The Volume Expansion Accompanying the Martensite Transformation in Iron-Carbon Alloys,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 6(9), pp. 1785–1791. [CrossRef]
Voothaluru, R. , Bedekar, V. , Xie, Q. , Stoica, A. D. , Hyde, R. S. , and An, K. , 2018, “In-Situ Neutron Diffraction and Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Modeling to Study the Kinematic Stability of Retained Austenite in Bearing Steels,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 711, pp. 579–587.
Withers, P. J. , and Bhadeshia, H. , 2001, “Residual Stress—Part 2: Nature and Origins,” Mater. Sci. Technol., 17(4), pp. 366–375. [CrossRef]
Johnson, K. L. , and Hearle, K. , 1987, “Cumulative Plastic Flow in Rolling and Sliding Line Contact,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 54(1), pp. 1–7.
Warhadpande, A. , and Sadeghi, F. , 2010, “Effects of Surface Defects on Rolling Contact Fatigue of Heavily Loaded Lubricated Contacts,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J, 224(10), pp. 1061–1077. [CrossRef]
Warhadpande, A. , Sadeghi, F. , Kotzalas, M. N. , and Doll, G. , 2012, “Effects of Plasticity on Subsurface Initiated Spalling in Rolling Contact Fatigue,” Int. J. Fatigue, 36(1), pp. 80–95. [CrossRef]
Jalalahmadi, B. , and Sadeghi, F. , 2010, “A Voronoi FE Fatigue Damage Model for Life Scatter in Rolling Contacts,” ASME J. Tribol., 132(2), p. 021404. [CrossRef]
Meyer, S. , Brückner-Foit, A. , and Möslang, A. , 2003, “A Stochastic Simulation Model for Microcrack Initiation in a Martensitic Steel,” Comput. Mater. Sci., 26, pp. 102–110. [CrossRef]
Walvekar, A. A. , and Sadeghi, F. , 2017, “Rolling Contact Fatigue of Case Carburized Steels,” Int. J. Fatigue, 95, pp. 264–281. [CrossRef]
Bai, M. K. , Pang, J. C. , Wang, G. D. , and Yi, H. L. , 2016, “Martensitic Transformation Cracking in High Carbon Steels for Bearings,” Mater. Sci. Technol., 32(11), pp. 1179–1183. [CrossRef]
Clyne, T. W. , and Withers, P. J. , 1995, An Introduction to Metal Matrix Composites, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Anoop, A. D. , Sekhar, A. S. , Kamaraj, M. , and Gopinath, K. , 2018, “Modelling the Mechanical Behaviour of Heat-Treated AISI 52100 Bearing Steel With Retained Austenite,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part L, 232(1), pp. 44–57.
Hatem, T. M. , 2009, “Microstructural Modeling of Heterogeneous Failure Modes in Martensitic Steels,” Ph.D. dissertation, ProQuest, Raleigh, NC. https://repository.lib.ncsu.edu/handle/1840.16/4016
Shimizu, S. , Tsuchiya, K. , and Tosha, K. , 2009, “Probabilistic Stress-Life (PSN) Study on Bearing Steel Using Alternating Torsion Life Test,” Tribol. Trans., 52(6), pp. 807–816. [CrossRef]
Nikitin, I. , and Altenberger, I. , 2007, “Comparison of the Fatigue Behavior and Residual Stress Stability of Laser-Shock Peened and Deep Rolled Austenitic Stainless Steel AISI 304 in the Temperature Range 25–600 C,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 465(1–2), pp. 176–182. [CrossRef]
Torres, M. A. S. , and Voorwald, H. J. C. , 2002, “An Evaluation of Shot Peening, Residual Stress and Stress Relaxation on the Fatigue Life of AISI 4340 Steel,” Int. J. Fatigue, 24(8), pp. 877–886. [CrossRef]
Morrow, J. , and Sinclair, G. M. , 1959, “Cycle-Dependent Stress Relaxation,” Symposium on Basic Mechanisms of Fatigue, Boston, MA, June 23, pp. 83–98.
Jhansale, H. R. , and Topper, T. H. , 1971, “Engineering Analysis of the Inelastic Stress Response of a Structural Metal Under Variable Cyclic Strains,” Cyclic Stress-Strain Behavior—Analysis, Experimentation, and Failure Prediction, ASTM International, West conshohocken, PA. [CrossRef]
Kodama, S. , 1972, “The Behavior of Residual Stress During Fatigue Stress Cycles,” International Conference on Mechanical Behavior of Metals II, Society of Material Science, Kyoto, Japan, Aug. 15–20, pp. 111–118.
Zhuang, W. Z. , and Halford, G. R. , 2001, “Investigation of Residual Stress Relaxation Under Cyclic Load,” Int. J. Fatigue, 23, pp. 31–37. [CrossRef]
Johnson, K. L. , and Johnson, K. L. , 1987, Contact Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Totten, G. E. , 2002, Handbook of Residual Stress and Deformation of Steel, ASM International, Materials Park, OH.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Depiction of 2D finite element domain

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) Voronoi tessellations representative of an austenitic microstructure. The average Voronoi diameter is 10 μm. (b) Discretization of Voronoi tessellations to create finite element mesh.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Static torsional test of through hardened 52100 steel. Yielding initiates at approximately 1500 MPa.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Residual stress values and RA Decomposition as a function of depth and cycles. (a) Experimental results provided by Voskamp et al. [12] from 52100 steel deep-groove ball bearings. (b) Simulated results.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Simulated RA decomposition plotted in a relative scale where white is the maximum RA present (12.5%) and black represents zero RA. Images correspond to an increasing cycle count moving from left to right.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Images of DER formation in 52100 steel due to rolling contact Pmax=3.2 GPa after (a) 3.4 × 108 cycles and (b) 1 × 109 cycles [12]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Simulation results for (a) RA decomposition and (b) RS formation in laser shot peened steel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Simulation results for (a) RA decomposition and (b) RS formation in deep rolled steel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Simulation results for (a) RA decomposition and (b) RS formation in case carburized steel of case depth b, where b is the length of the Hertzian half-contact

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Simulation results for (a) RA decomposition and (b) RS formation in case carburized steel of case depth 2b

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Simulated results for (a) RA decomposition and (b) RS formation in case carburized steel of case depth 4b

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Simulated results for (a) RA decomposition and (b) RS formation in case carburized steel of case depth 5b

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Simulated results for (a) RA decomposition and (b) RS formation in case carburized steel of case depth 10b

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In