Research Papers: Contact Mechanics

Effect of Residual Stresses on Microstructural Evolution Due to Rolling Contact Fatigue

[+] Author and Article Information
Dallin Morris

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: morri295@purdue.edu

Farshid Sadeghi

Cummins Distinguished Professor of Mechanical
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: sadeghi@purdue.edu

Yong-Ching Chen

Materials Engineering for China Technical
Cummins Technical Center,
1900 McKinley Ave,
Columbus, IN 47201
e-mail: yong-ching.c.chen@cummins.com

Chinpei Wang

Cummins Technical Center,
R&T Cummins, Inc.,
1900 McKinley Ave,
Columbus, IN 47201
e-mail: chinpei.wang@cummins.com

Ben Wang

Metallurgical Engineering,
Cummins Technical Center,
1900 McKinley Ave,
Columbus, IN 47201
e-mail: wang.ben@cummins.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received January 30, 2018; final manuscript received April 9, 2018; published online May 21, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Longqiu Li.

J. Tribol 140(6), 061402 (May 21, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: TRIB-18-1047; doi: 10.1115/1.4040051 History: Received January 30, 2018; Revised April 09, 2018

Rolling contact fatigue (RCF) induces a complex subsurface stress state, which produces significant microstructural alterations within bearing steels. A novel modeling approach is presented in this paper, which investigates the effects of microstructural deterioration, phase transformations, and residual stress (RS) formation occurring within bearing steels subject to RCF. The continuum damage mechanics approach was implemented to capture microstructural decay. State and dissipation functions corresponding to the damage mechanics process were used via an energy criterion to predict the phase transformations of retained austenite (RA). Experimental measurements for RA decomposition and corresponding RS were combined to produce a function providing RS formation as a function of RA decomposition and stress history within the material. Microstructural decay, phase transformations, and internal stresses were implemented within a two-dimensional (2D) finite element analysis (FEA) line contact model to investigate variation in microstructural alterations due to RSs present within the material. In order to verify the model developed for this investigation, initial simulations were performed implementing conditions of previously published experimental work and directly comparing to observed RA decomposition and RS formation in 52100 steel deep groove ball bearings. The finite element model developed was then used to implement various RS profiles commonly observed due to manufacturing processes such as laser-shot peening and carburizing. It was found that some RS profiles are beneficial in altering RA decomposition patterns and increasing life while others proved less advantageous.

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Fig. 1

Depiction of 2D finite element domain

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Fig. 2

(a) Voronoi tessellations representative of an austenitic microstructure. The average Voronoi diameter is 10 μm. (b) Discretization of Voronoi tessellations to create finite element mesh.

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Fig. 3

Static torsional test of through hardened 52100 steel. Yielding initiates at approximately 1500 MPa.

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Fig. 4

Residual stress values and RA Decomposition as a function of depth and cycles. (a) Experimental results provided by Voskamp et al. [12] from 52100 steel deep-groove ball bearings. (b) Simulated results.

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Fig. 5

Simulated RA decomposition plotted in a relative scale where white is the maximum RA present (12.5%) and black represents zero RA. Images correspond to an increasing cycle count moving from left to right.

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Fig. 6

Images of DER formation in 52100 steel due to rolling contact Pmax=3.2 GPa after (a) 3.4 × 108 cycles and (b) 1 × 109 cycles [12]

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Fig. 7

Simulation results for (a) RA decomposition and (b) RS formation in laser shot peened steel

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Fig. 8

Simulation results for (a) RA decomposition and (b) RS formation in deep rolled steel

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Fig. 9

Simulation results for (a) RA decomposition and (b) RS formation in case carburized steel of case depth b, where b is the length of the Hertzian half-contact

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Fig. 10

Simulation results for (a) RA decomposition and (b) RS formation in case carburized steel of case depth 2b

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Fig. 11

Simulated results for (a) RA decomposition and (b) RS formation in case carburized steel of case depth 4b

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Fig. 12

Simulated results for (a) RA decomposition and (b) RS formation in case carburized steel of case depth 5b

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Fig. 13

Simulated results for (a) RA decomposition and (b) RS formation in case carburized steel of case depth 10b



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