0
Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Experimental Studies and Comparison of Centrifugally Cast Cu/SiC and Cu/Si3N4 Functionally Graded Composites on Mechanical and Wear Behavior

[+] Author and Article Information
N. Radhika

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore,
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham,
Coimbatore 641 112, India
e-mail: n_radhika1@cb.amrita.edu

J. Andrew Jefferson

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore,
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham,
Coimbatore 641 112, India
e-mail: andrewneojefferson@gmail.com

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received June 12, 2017; final manuscript received April 27, 2018; published online May 21, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Nuria Espallargas.

J. Tribol 140(6), 061602 (May 21, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: TRIB-17-1226; doi: 10.1115/1.4040160 History: Received June 12, 2017; Revised April 27, 2018

The objective of this research work is to synthesize functionally graded Cu-11Ni-4Si/10 wt % SiC, Cu-11Ni-4Si/10 wt % Si3N4 composite using horizontal centrifugal casting method and to analyze its mechanical and adhesive wear behavior. The cast samples with dimension of Øout100 × Øin70 × 100 mm were synthesized and variation in volume of SiC and Si3N4 particles on inner (1 mm), middle (8 mm), and outer surfaces (15 mm) along radial direction of the composites was analyzed. Microstructural images revealed that inner zone of the both composites had highest distribution of reinforcement particles. Tensile tests on inner (1–7 mm) and outer (8–15 mm) zones of composites revealed that the inner zones had highest tensile and yield strength. Fractography test was conducted for both composites at inner and outer zones to observe the mode of failure. Hardness tests taken along radial direction of the composites revealed that, the inner surface had better hardness and it reduced toward outer periphery. The outer and inner surfaces of Cu/SiC were compared with Cu/Si3N4 composites and results revealed that inner surface of Cu/SiC had highest wear resistance among all surfaces of composites. It was also observed that, while increasing load, wear rate increased with it for all composites. Wear rate of composites majorly decreased while increasing the sliding velocity due to formation of tribolayer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis carried out on worn surfaces of Cu/SiC and Cu/Si3N4 composite revealed that, plastic deformation, and plowing were the dominant wear mechanism for varied parameters.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Radhika, N. , and Subramanian, R. , 2013, “Effect of Reinforcement on Wear Behaviour of Aluminium Hybrid Composites,” Tribol.-Mater. Surf. Interfaces, 7(1), pp. 36–41. [CrossRef]
Radhika, N. , and Raghu, R. , 2015, “Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Functionally Graded Aluminium/Zirconia Metal Matrix Composite Synthesized by Centrifugal Casting,” Int. J. Mater. Res., 106(11), pp. 1174–1181. [CrossRef]
Alidokht, S. A. , Abdollah-Zadeh, A. , Soleymani, S. , Saeid, T. , and Assadi, H. , 2012, “Evaluation of Microstructure and Wear Behavior of Friction Stir Processed Cast Aluminum Alloy,” Mater. Charact., 63, pp. 90–97. [CrossRef]
Rana, R. S. , Purohit, R. , and Das, S. , 2012, “Reviews on the Influences of Alloying Elements on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloys and Aluminum Alloy Composites,” Int. J. Sci. Res. Publ., 2(6), pp. 1–7. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c360/cdb98ac0c9d46e40640f877e931fb97257e1.pdf
Gao, J. W. , and Wang, C. Y. , 2000, “Modeling the Solidification of Functionally Graded Materials by Centrifugal Casting,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 292(2), pp. 207–215. [CrossRef]
Skibo, M. D. , and Schuster, D. M. , 1989, “Process for Preparation of Composite Materials Containing Nonmetallic Particles in a Metallic Matrix,” Dural Aluminum Composites Corp., San Diego, CA, U.S. Patent No. 4,865,806. https://patents.google.com/patent/US4865806A/en
Radhika, N. , and Raghu, R. , 2016, “Development of Functionally Graded Aluminium Composites Using Centrifugal Casting and Influence of Reinforcements on Mechanical and Wear Properties,” Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 26(4), pp. 905–916. [CrossRef]
Babu, U. H. , and Sai, N. V. , 2014, “Evaluating the Mechanical Properties of Copper Red Mud Composites,” Int. J. Eng. Dev. Res., 3(1), pp. 20–24.
Mallik, S. , Ekere, N. , Best, C. , and Bhatti, R. , 2011, “Investigation of Thermal Management Materials for Automotive Electronic Control Units,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 31(2–3), pp. 355–362. [CrossRef]
Shabani, M. , Paydar, M. H. , Zamiri, R. , Goodarzi, M. , and Moshksar, M. M. , 2016, “Microstructural and Sliding Wear Behavior of SiC-Particle Reinforced Copper Matrix Composites Fabricated by Sintering and Sinter-Forging Processes,” J. Mater. Res. Technol., 5(1), pp. 5–12. [CrossRef]
Zhan, Y. , Zhang, G. , and Zhuang, Y. , 2004, “Wear Transitions in Particulate Reinforced Copper Matrix Composites,” Mater. Trans., 45(7), pp. 2332–2338. [CrossRef]
Deshpande, P. K. , and Lin, R. Y. , 2006, “Wear Resistance of WC Particle Reinforced Copper Matrix Composites and the Effect of Porosity,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 418(1–2), pp. 137–145. [CrossRef]
Umale, T. , Singh, A. , Reddy, Y. , Khatitrkar, R. K. , and Sapate, S. G. , 2013, “Abrasive Wear Behaviour of Copper-SiC and Copper-SiO2 Composites,” Int. J. Mod. Phys., 22, pp. 416–423.
Eslami, M. , Golestani-fard, F. , Saghafian, H. , and Robin, A. , 2014, “Friction and Wear Behavior of Electrodeposited Cu-Si3N4 Composite Coatings,” Materials Science and Technology Conference and Exhibition (MS&T 2014), Pittsburgh, PA, Oct. 12–16, pp. 11–18.
Shehata, F. , Fathy, A. , Abdelhameed, M. , and Moustafa, S. F. , 2009, “Preparation and Properties of Al2O3 Nanoparticle Reinforced Copper Matrix Composites by In Situ Processing,” Mater. Des., 30(7), pp. 2756–2762. [CrossRef]
Suzuki, S. , Shibutani, N. , Mimura, K. , Isshiki, M. , and Waseda, Y. , 2006, “Improvement in Strength and Electrical Conductivity of Cu-Ni-Si Alloys by Aging and Cold Rolling,” J. Alloys Compd., 417(1–2), pp. 116–120. [CrossRef]
Lei, Q. , Li, Z. , Xiao, T. , Pang, Y. , Xiang, Z. Q. , Qiu, W. T. , and Xiao, Z. , 2013, “A New Ultrahigh Strength Cu-Ni-Si Alloy,” Intermetallics, 42, pp. 77–84. [CrossRef]
Li, Z. , Pan, Z. Y. , Zhao, Y. Y. , Xiao, Z. , and Wang, M. P. , 2009, “Microstructure and Properties of High-Conductivity, Super-High-Strength Cu-8.0Ni-1.8Si-0.6Sn-0.15 Mg Alloy,” J. Mater. Res., 24(6), pp. 2123–2129. [CrossRef]
Krishna, S. C. , Srinath, J. , Jha, A. K. , Pant, B. , Sharma, S. C. , and George, K. M. , 2013, “Microstructure and Properties of a High-Strength Cu-Ni-Si-Co-Zr Alloy,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 22(7), pp. 2115–2120. [CrossRef]
Wang, W. , Kang, H. , Chen, Z. , Chen, Z. , Zou, C. , Li, R. , Yin, G. , and Wang, T. , 2016, “Effects of Cr and Zr Additions on Microstructure and Properties of Cu-Ni-Si Alloys,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 673, pp. 378–390. [CrossRef]
Bertolino, N. , Monagheddu, M. , Tacca, A. , Giuliani, P. , Zanotti, C. , Maglia, F. , and Anselmi Tamburini, U. , 2003, “Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of Functionally Graded Materials as Thermal Protection Systems for High-Temperature Applications,” J. Mater. Res., 18(2), pp. 448–455. [CrossRef]
Prabhu, T. R. , and Vedantam, S. , 2015, “Layer-Graded Cu/B4C/Graphite Hybrid Composites: Processing, Characterization, and Evaluation of Their Mechanical and Wear Behavior,” Tribol. Trans., 58(4), pp. 718–728. [CrossRef]
Kennedy, F. E. , Balbahadur, A. C. , and Lashmore, D. S. , 1997, “The Friction and Wear of Cu-Based Silicon Carbide Particulate Metal Matrix Composites for Brake Applications,” Wear, 203–204, pp. 715–721. [CrossRef]
Niansuo, X. , and Jin, W. , 2012, “Study on Preparation of Copper Matrix Composites Reinforced by SiC and Graphite Particles,” Second International Conference on Consumer Electronics, Communications and Networks (CECNet), Yichang, China, Apr. 21–23, pp. 1333–1336.
Efe, G. F. C. , Ipek, M. , Zeytin, S. , and Bindal, C. , 2016, “Fabrication and Properties of SiC Reinforced Copper-Matrix-Composite Contact Material,” Mater. Technol., 50(4), pp. 585–590.
Sanesh, K. , Sunder, S. S. , and Radhika, N. , 2017, “Effect of Reinforcement Content on the Adhesive Wear Behavior of Cu10Sn5Ni/Si3N4 Composites Produced by Stir Casting,” Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 24(9), pp. 1052–1060.
Xing, H. , Cao, X. , Hu, W. , Zhao, L. , and Zhang, J. , 2005, “Interfacial Reactions in 3D-SiC Network Reinforced Cu-Matrix Composites Prepared by Squeeze Casting,” Mater. Lett., 59(12), pp. 1563–1566. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of reinforcements: (a) SiC and (b) Si3N4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) Copper melting furnace and (b) centrifugal casting machine

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Pin-on disk tribometer

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Microstructures of composite specimens at different radial distance from inner periphery: Cu/SiC FGM (a) 1 mm, (b) 8 mm, (c) 15 mm and Cu/Si3N4 FGM at (d) 1 mm, (e) 8 mm, and (f) 15 mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

XRD of inner region of Cu/SiC composite specimen

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

XRD of inner region of Cu/Si3N4 composite specimen

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Tensile results of inner and outer zones of Cu/SiC FGM and Cu/Si3N4 FGM

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Fractograph of functionally graded copper composite: SiC at (a) inner zone and (b) outer zone and Si3N4 at (c) inner zone and (d) outer zone

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

(a) Hardness and % volume of particles along radial direction: Cu/SiC FGM and (b) hardness and % volume of particles along radial direction: Cu/Si3N4 FGM

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Effect of loads on wear behavior of the composite

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

SEM images of worn samples at varied loads: Cu/SiC FGM at (a) 10 N and (b) 50 N and Cu/Si3N4 FGM at (c) 10 N and (d) 50 N

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Effect of sliding velocities on wear behavior of the composite

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

SEM images of worn samples at varied sliding velocities: Cu/SiC FGM at (a) 0.5 m/s and (b) 3.5 m/s and Cu/Si3N4 FGM at (c) 0.5 m/s and (d) 3.5 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Effect of sliding distances on wear behavior of the composite

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

SEM images of worn samples at varied sliding distances: Cu/SiC FGM at (a) 500 m and (b) 2500 m and Cu/Si3N4 FGM at (c) 500 m and (d) 2500 m

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

SEM image of worn sample (a) Cu/SiC inner and (b) Cu/SiC outer

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In