Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Experimental Studies and Comparison of Centrifugally Cast Cu/SiC and Cu/Si3N4 Functionally Graded Composites on Mechanical and Wear Behavior

[+] Author and Article Information
N. Radhika

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore,
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham,
Coimbatore 641 112, India
e-mail: n_radhika1@cb.amrita.edu

J. Andrew Jefferson

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore,
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham,
Coimbatore 641 112, India
e-mail: andrewneojefferson@gmail.com

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received June 12, 2017; final manuscript received April 27, 2018; published online May 21, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Nuria Espallargas.

J. Tribol 140(6), 061602 (May 21, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: TRIB-17-1226; doi: 10.1115/1.4040160 History: Received June 12, 2017; Revised April 27, 2018

The objective of this research work is to synthesize functionally graded Cu-11Ni-4Si/10 wt % SiC, Cu-11Ni-4Si/10 wt % Si3N4 composite using horizontal centrifugal casting method and to analyze its mechanical and adhesive wear behavior. The cast samples with dimension of Øout100 × Øin70 × 100 mm were synthesized and variation in volume of SiC and Si3N4 particles on inner (1 mm), middle (8 mm), and outer surfaces (15 mm) along radial direction of the composites was analyzed. Microstructural images revealed that inner zone of the both composites had highest distribution of reinforcement particles. Tensile tests on inner (1–7 mm) and outer (8–15 mm) zones of composites revealed that the inner zones had highest tensile and yield strength. Fractography test was conducted for both composites at inner and outer zones to observe the mode of failure. Hardness tests taken along radial direction of the composites revealed that, the inner surface had better hardness and it reduced toward outer periphery. The outer and inner surfaces of Cu/SiC were compared with Cu/Si3N4 composites and results revealed that inner surface of Cu/SiC had highest wear resistance among all surfaces of composites. It was also observed that, while increasing load, wear rate increased with it for all composites. Wear rate of composites majorly decreased while increasing the sliding velocity due to formation of tribolayer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis carried out on worn surfaces of Cu/SiC and Cu/Si3N4 composite revealed that, plastic deformation, and plowing were the dominant wear mechanism for varied parameters.

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Fig. 1

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of reinforcements: (a) SiC and (b) Si3N4

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Fig. 2

(a) Copper melting furnace and (b) centrifugal casting machine

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Fig. 4

Pin-on disk tribometer

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Fig. 5

Microstructures of composite specimens at different radial distance from inner periphery: Cu/SiC FGM (a) 1 mm, (b) 8 mm, (c) 15 mm and Cu/Si3N4 FGM at (d) 1 mm, (e) 8 mm, and (f) 15 mm

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Fig. 6

XRD of inner region of Cu/SiC composite specimen

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Fig. 7

XRD of inner region of Cu/Si3N4 composite specimen

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Fig. 8

Tensile results of inner and outer zones of Cu/SiC FGM and Cu/Si3N4 FGM

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Fig. 9

Fractograph of functionally graded copper composite: SiC at (a) inner zone and (b) outer zone and Si3N4 at (c) inner zone and (d) outer zone

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Fig. 10

(a) Hardness and % volume of particles along radial direction: Cu/SiC FGM and (b) hardness and % volume of particles along radial direction: Cu/Si3N4 FGM

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Fig. 11

Effect of loads on wear behavior of the composite

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Fig. 12

SEM images of worn samples at varied loads: Cu/SiC FGM at (a) 10 N and (b) 50 N and Cu/Si3N4 FGM at (c) 10 N and (d) 50 N

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Fig. 13

Effect of sliding velocities on wear behavior of the composite

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Fig. 14

SEM images of worn samples at varied sliding velocities: Cu/SiC FGM at (a) 0.5 m/s and (b) 3.5 m/s and Cu/Si3N4 FGM at (c) 0.5 m/s and (d) 3.5 m/s

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Fig. 15

Effect of sliding distances on wear behavior of the composite

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Fig. 16

SEM images of worn samples at varied sliding distances: Cu/SiC FGM at (a) 500 m and (b) 2500 m and Cu/Si3N4 FGM at (c) 500 m and (d) 2500 m

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Fig. 17

SEM image of worn sample (a) Cu/SiC inner and (b) Cu/SiC outer



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