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Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Tribological Properties of Three-Dimensionally Printed Ti–6Al–4V Material Via Electron Beam Melting Process Tested Against 100Cr6 Steel Without and With Hank's Solution

[+] Author and Article Information
N. W. Khun

School of Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering,
Nanyang Technological University,
50 Nanyang Avenue,
Singapore 639798

W. Q. Toh, X. P. Tan

School of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering;
Singapore Centre for 3D Printing,
Nanyang Technological University,
50 Nanyang Avenue,
Singapore 639798

E. Liu

Singapore Centre for 3D Printing,
Nanyang Technological University,
50 Nanyang Avenue,
Singapore 639798
e-mail: MEJLiu@ntu.edu.sg

S. B. Tor

Singapore Centre for 3D Printing,
Nanyang Technological University,
50 Nanyang Avenue,
Singapore 639798

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received August 15, 2017; final manuscript received March 29, 2018; published online May 28, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Zhong Min Jin.

J. Tribol 140(6), 061606 (May 28, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: TRIB-17-1315; doi: 10.1115/1.4040158 History: Received August 15, 2017; Revised March 29, 2018

Three-dimensionally (3D) printed Ti–6Al–4V (Ti64) samples via an electron beam melting (EBM) process were developed to investigate their microstructure and mechanical and tribological properties in comparison with those of commercial Ti64 samples. The 3D-printed Ti64 samples had a heavily twinned and acicular martensitic structure that was responsible for their higher surface hardness than that of the commercial Ti64 samples. The 3D-printed Ti64 samples tested against a 100Cr6 steel counter ball without and with Hank's solution had a higher wear resistance associated with their higher surface hardness than the commercial Ti64 samples. The use of Hank's solution during sliding reduced the wear of the both Ti64 samples as a result of the lubricating effect of the solution. It could be concluded that the 3D-printed Ti64 samples in this study had comparable mechanical and tribological properties to those of the commercial Ti64 samples.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Overview of Ti64 particles used for 3D printing of Ti64 samples and (b) their EDX spectrum

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Fig. 2

Optical images showing surface microstructures of (a) commercial Ti64 sample and (b) and (c) 3D-printed Ti64 sample at different magnifications

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Fig. 12

Optical images showing wear morphologies of 100Cr6 steel counter balls rubbed against (a) and (c) commercial and (b) and (d) 3D-printed Ti64 samples (a) and (b) without and (c) and (d) with Hank's solution under the same conditions as described in Fig. 6. A 200 μm scale bar is used for all the micrographs.

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Fig. 11

EDX spectra of (a)–(c) commercial and (d)–(f) 3D-printed Ti64 samples, tested (b) and (e) without and (c) and (f) with Hank's solution under the same conditions as described in Fig. 6, measured on their (a) and (d) untested and (b), (c), (e), and (f) tested areas at locations A and B in Fig. 8(c), C and D in Fig. 8(d), E in Fig. 10(c), and F in Fig. 10(d)

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Fig. 10

Surface (a) and (b) topographies and (c)–(f) morphologies of (a), (c), and (e) commercial and (b), (d), and (f) 3D-printed Ti64 samples, tested with Hank's solution under the same conditions as described in Fig. 6, observed at different magnifications

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Fig. 9

XPS (a) C 1 s, (b) O 1 s, (c) Ti 2p, and (d) Al 2p peaks of 3D-printed Ti64 sample measured on its wear debris shown in the inset image in (a). The wear debris were accumulated from the wear track of the 3D-printed Ti64 sample tested without Hank's solution under the same conditions as described in Fig.6.

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Fig. 8

Surface (a) and (b) topographies and (c)–(f) morphologies of (a), (c), and (e) commercial and (b), (d), and (f) 3D-printed Ti64 samples, tested without Hank's solution under the same conditions as described in Fig. 6, observed at different magnifications

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Fig. 7

Specific wear rates of commercial and 3D-printed Ti64 samples tested under the same conditions as described in Fig.6

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Fig. 6

(a) Friction coefficients of commercial and 3D-printed Ti64 samples tested against 100Cr6 steel balls of 6 mm in diameter without and with Hank's solution in a circular path of 1 mm in radius for 30,000 laps at a sliding speed of 3 cm/s under a normal load of 1 N, and (b) friction coefficients of the same samples tested under the same conditions as described above as a function of the number of laps

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Fig. 5

Hardnesses of 3D-printed Ti64 sample measured along its cross section

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Fig. 4

XRD patterns of commercial Ti64 sample, 3D-printed Ti64 sample, and Ti64 powder used for the fabrication of the 3D-printed Ti64 sample

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Fig. 3

Optical images showing cross-sectional microstructures of 3D-printed Ti64 sample at (a) top, (b) center, and (c) bottom

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