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Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Synergetic Effect of Cryorolling and Postroll Aging on Simultaneous Increase in Wear Resistance and Mechanical Properties of an Al–Cu Alloy

[+] Author and Article Information
I. Jaseem, R. J. Immanuel, F. Khan, MD, B. N. Sahoo

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Madras,
Chennai 600036, India

P. N. Rao

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Marri Laxman Reddy Institute of
Technology and Management,
Hyderabad 500043, India

S. K. Panigrahi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Madras,
Chennai 600036, India
e-mail: skpanigrahi@iitm.ac.in

M. Kamaraj

Department of Metallurgical and
Materials Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Madras,
Chennai 600036, India

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received February 18, 2018; final manuscript received April 29, 2018; published online May 28, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Yi Zhu.

J. Tribol 140(6), 061607 (May 28, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: TRIB-18-1074; doi: 10.1115/1.4040162 History: Received February 18, 2018; Revised April 29, 2018

Aluminum–copper alloy system is extensively used in structural and aerospace applications for its high strength-to-weight ratio, good mechanical and tribological properties. Improving the properties of these alloys would likely widen their application area. In the present work, an attempt has been made to simultaneously enhance the wear resistance and mechanical properties of an Al–Cu alloy, AA2014 by imparting different levels of cryorolling strains and postroll aging treatment. The wear behavior of the material is studied under dry sliding condition by pin-on-disk experiments and mechanical properties are assessed by tensile test. Formation of high fraction of dislocation density and significant refinement of microstructure during cryorolling and nucleation of fine coherent Guinier–Preston (GP) zones of Al2Cu precipitates during postcryoroll aging has led to about 100% increment in the wear resistance of the material. Tensile test results proved that the synergetic effect of cryorolling and aging treatment led to 53% increment in strength (557 MPa) without compromising the material's ductility (22.5%). A detailed investigation on the various mechanisms responsible for the enhanced wear resistance and improved mechanical performance is presented based on the microstructural evidence.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Process flow diagram showing: (a) solution treatment followed by aging and (b) cryorolling after solution treatment followed by aging

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Fig. 2

Optical micrograph of the base solution treated material

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Fig. 3

Transmission electron microscope micrographs showing the dislocation networks in (a) 0.6CR and (b) 1.2CR materials. The arrow heads in (b) shows the formation of ultrafine grains in 1.2CR material.

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Fig. 4

Variation in microhardness between solution treated and cryorolled materials

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Fig. 5

Age hardening response of ST and 1.2CR materials

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Fig. 6

Schematic representation of dislocation movement across a GP zone

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Fig. 7

Schematic representation showing different mechanisms by which the precipitate (particle) obstructs the dislocation movement by bowing and shearing. The graph in the right side shows the strength contribution from both the mechanism with variation in the particle size.

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Fig. 8

X-Ray diffraction pattern of base and processed materials. Inset shows a zoomed in view of XRD peak corresponding to the [111] plane of aluminum.

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Fig. 9

Variation in crystal domain size, microstrain, and dislocation density for different material conditions

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Fig. 10

(a) Wear loss of materials subjected to sliding wear test for various sliding distance. (b) Average friction coefficient of different material conditions. The inset in (b) shows the image of wear pin used in the experiment.

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Fig. 11

Worn surface morphology and the corresponding EDS chemical composition data of (a) and (b) ST, (c) and (d) 0.6CR and (e) and (f) 1.2CR materials. The circled zone and the arrow head in (a), (c), and (e) indicate adhesion marks and abrasive marks, respectively.

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Fig. 12

Wear loss of solution treated and cryorolled material subjected to peak-aging treatment (STA and CRA, respectively)

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Fig. 13

Worn surface morphology and corresponding EDS chemical analysis of (a) and (b) STA and (c) and (d) CRA materials

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Fig. 14

Engineering stress–strain graph of different material conditions

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Fig. 15

Normalized strain hardening rate for various material conditions

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Fig. 16

Scanning electron microscope fractographs showing the fracture surface of (a) ST (b) STA (c) 1.2CR and (d) CRA materials. (e) and (f) show higher magnification fractographs of 1.2CR and CRA materials, respectively. The unfilled and filled arrows in the figures indicate zones of ductile and brittle fracture, respectively.

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