0
Research Papers: Contact Mechanics

Finite Element Analysis Simulation of the Effect of Induction Hardening on Rolling Contact Fatigue

[+] Author and Article Information
Nguyen Hoa Ngan

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
École de Technologie Supérieure,
1100 Notre-Dame Street West,
Montréal H3C 1K3, Québec, Canada
e-mail: nguyenhoangan77@gmail.com

Philippe Bocher

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
École de Technologie Supérieure,
1100 Notre-Dame Street West,
Montréal H3C 1K3, Québec, Canada
e-mail: philippe.bocher@etsmtl.ca

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received December 11, 2017; final manuscript received May 8, 2018; published online July 12, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Wang-Long Li.

J. Tribol 140(6), 061404 (Jul 12, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: TRIB-17-1478; doi: 10.1115/1.4040305 History: Received December 11, 2017; Revised May 08, 2018

The objective of this research is to conduct a finite element analysis to better understand the effects of induction hardening on rolling contact fatigue (RCF). The finite element analysis was developed in three-dimensional to estimate the maximal loading and the positions of the crack nucleation sites in the case of cylinder contact rolling. Rolling contact with or without surface compressive residual stress (RS) were studied and compared. The RS profile was chosen to simulate the effects of an induction hardening treatment on a 48 HRC tempered AISI4340 steel component. As this hardening process not only generates a RS gradient in the treated component but also a hardness gradient (called over-tempered region), both types of gradients were introduced in the present model. RSs in compression were generated in the hard case (about 60 HRC); tension values were introduced in the over-tempered region, where hardness as low as 38 HRC were set. In order to estimate the maximal allowable loadings in the rotating cylinders to target a life of 106 cycles, a multiaxial Dang Van criterion and a shear stress fatigue limit were used in the positive and negative hydrostatic conditions, respectively. With the proposed approach, the induction hardened component was found to have a maximal allowable loading significantly higher than that obtained with a nontreated one, and it was observed that the residual tensile stress peak found in the over-tempered region could become a limiting factor for fatigue rolling contact life.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Glaeser, W. A. , and S. J., Shaffer , Battelle Laboratories, 1996, “ Contact Fatigue,” ASM Handbook, Vol. 19, Fatigue and Fracture ASM Handbook Committee, Materials Park, OH, pp. 331–336. [PubMed] [PubMed]
Tallian, T. E. , 1982, “ A Unified Model for Rolling Contact Life Prediction,” ASME J. Lubr. Technol., 104(3), pp. 336–346. [CrossRef]
Halme, J. , and Andersson, P. , 2009, “ Rolling Contact Fatigue and Wear Fundamentals for Rolling Bearing Diagnostics—State of the Art,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part J: J. Eng. Tribol., 224(4), pp. 377–393. [CrossRef]
Sadeghi, F. , Jalalahmadi, B. , Slack, T. S. , Raje, N. , and Arakere, N. K. , 2009, “ A Review of Rolling Contact Fatigue,” ASME J. Tribol., 131(4), p. 041403. [CrossRef]
Hertz, H. , 1881, “ On the Contact of Elastic Solids,” J. Fur Die Reined Angew. Math., pp. 156–171.
Johnson, K. L. , 2004, Contact Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Zaretsky, E. V. , Parker, R. J. , Anderson, W. J. , and Miller, S. T. , 1965, “ Effect of Component Differential Hardness on Residual Stress and Rolling-Contact Fatigue,” Scientific and Technical Information Division, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC, Technical Report No. NASA TN D-2664. http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a393880.pdf
Lundberg, G. , and Palmgren, A. , 1952, “ Dynamic Capacity of Roller Bearing,” Acta Polytech. Scand., Mech. Eng. Ser., 2(4), pp. 1–52.
Coy, J. J. , and Zaretsky, E. V. , 1975, “ Life Analysis of Helical Gear Sets Using Lundberg-Palmgren Theory,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC, Technical Report No. NASA TN D-8045. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750022491
Harris, T. A. , and Yu, W. K. , 1999, “ Lundberg-Palmgren Fatigue Theory: Considerations of Failure Stress and Stressed Volume,” ASME J. Tribol., 121(1), pp. 85–89. [CrossRef]
Zaretsky, E. V. , Poplawski, J. V. , and Peters, S. M. , 1995, “ Comparison of Life Theories for Rolling-Element Bearings,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC, Technical Report No. N95-26774.
Harris, T. A. , and McCool, J. I. , 1996, “ On the Accuracy of Rolling Bearing Fatigue Life Prediction,” ASME J. Tribol., 118(2), pp. 297–309. [CrossRef]
Savaria, V. , 2014, “ Contraintes Résiduelles Et Leurs Impacts Sur L'amorçage De Fissures En Fatigue De Flexion Dans Des Engrenages Aéronautiques Durcis Superficiellement Par Induction,” Ph.D. dissertation, École de technologie supérieure, Montreal, QC, Canada.
Savaria, V. , Florent, F. , and Bocher, P. , 2016, “ Predicting the Effects of Material Properties Gradient and Residual Stresses on the Bending Fatigue Strength of Induction Hardened Aeronautical Gear,” Int. J. Fatigue, 82, pp. 70–84. [CrossRef]
Palin-Luc, T. , Coupard, D. , Dumas, C. , and Bristiel, P. , 2011, “ Simulation of Multiaxial Fatigue Strength of Steel Component Treated by Surface Induction Hardening and Comparison With Experimental Results,” Int. J. Fatigue, 33(8), pp. 1040–1047. [CrossRef]
Muro, H. , Tsushima, T. , and Nagafuchi, M. , 1975, “ Initiation and Propagation of Surface Cracks in Rolling High Hardness Steel,” Wear, 35(2), pp. 261–282. [CrossRef]
Pazdanowski, M. , 2014, “ Residual Stresses as a Factor of Railroad Rail Fatigue,” Technical Transaction, Civil Engineering, 4-B/2014, pp. 39–46. https://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/downloadResource&mId=1231348
Morrison, R. A. , 1968, “ Load/Life Curves for Gear and Cam Materials,” Mach. Des., 40, pp. 102–108.
Koibuchi, K. , Hayama, T. , and Kawai, S. , 1982, “ Residual Stress and Fatigue Strength of Surface Hardened Components,” International Conference on Shot peening (ICSP1), pp. 413–419. https://www.shotpeener.com/library/pdf/1981056.pdf
Shipley, E. E. , 1974, “ Failure Modes in Gears,” Gear Manufacture and Performance (Materials/metalworking technology series, Vol. 1), Guichelaar, P. J., Levy, B. S., and Parikh, N. M., eds., American Society for Metals, Metals Park, OH, pp.107–135.
Townsend, D. P. , 1995, “ The Surface Fatigue Life of Contour Induction Hardened AISI 1552 Gear,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC, Technical Report No. ARL-TR-808.
Akata, E. , Altinbalik, M. T. , and Çan, Y. , 2004, “ Three Point Load Application in Single Tooth Bending Fatigue Test for Evaluation of Gear Blank Manufacturing Methods,” Int. J. Fatigue, 26(7), pp. 785–789. [CrossRef]
Crossland, B. , 1954, “ The Effect of Fluid Pressure on the Shear Properties of Metals,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 168(1), pp. 935–946. [CrossRef]
Flavenot, J. F. , and Skalli, N. , 1984, “ A Critical Depth Criterion for the Evaluation of Long-Life Fatigue Strength Under Multiaxial Loading and a Stress Gradient,” Fifth European Conference on Fracture (ECF5), Lisbon, Portugal, Sept. 17–21, pp. 335–344.
Lefebvre, D. F. , 1989, “ Hydrostatic Pressure Effect on Life Prediction in Biaxial Low-Cycle Fatigue,” Biaxial and Multiaxial Fatigue, EGF3, Mechanical Engineering Publications, London, UK, pp. 511–533.
Nemkov, V. , Goldstein, R. , Jackowski, J. , Ferguson, L. , and Li, Z. , 2013, “ Stress and Distortion Evolution During Induction Case Hardening of Tube,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 22(7), pp. 1826–1832.
Dudragne, G. , Fougeres, R. , and Theolier, M. , 1981, “ Analysis Method for Both Internal Stresses and Microstructural Effect Under Pure Rolling Fatigue Conditions,” ASME J. Lubr. Technol., 103(4), pp. 521–525.
Ekberg, A. , Bjarnehed, H. , and Lunden, R. , 1995, “ A Fatigue Life Model for General Rolling Contact With Application to Wheel/Rail Damage,” Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct., 18(10), pp. 1189–1199. [CrossRef]
ANSYS Inc., 2017, “ ANSYS® Academic Research Mechanical, Release 17.2, Help System, ANSYS Mechanical Documentation,” ANSYS, Canonsburg, PA.
Kim, T. Y. , and Kim, H. K. , 2014, “ Three-Dimensional Elastic-Plastic Finite Element Analysis for Wheel-Rail Rolling Contact Fatigue,” Int. J. Eng. Technol., 6(3), pp. 1593–1600. http://www.enggjournals.com/ijet/docs/IJET14-06-03-056.pdf
Desimone, H. , Bernasconi, A. , and Beretta, S. , 2006, “ On the Application of Dang Van Criterion to Rolling Contact Fatigue,” Wear, 260(4–5), pp. 567–572. [CrossRef]
Bernasconi, A. , Davoli, P. , Filippini, M. , and Foletti, S. , 2005, “ An Integrated Approach to Rolling Contact Sub-Surface Fatigue Assessment of Railway Wheels,” Wear, 258(7–8), pp. 973–980. [CrossRef]
Reitinger, B. , Berer, T. , Helm, O. , and Burgholzer, P. , 2008, “ Alteration of the Elastic Properties of Steel and Cast Iron Caused by Hardening,” First International Symposium on Laser Ultrasonics: Science, Technology and Applications, Montréal, QC, Canada, July 16–18. https://www.ndt.net/article/laser-ut2008/papers/Reitinger%20LU2008.pdf
Kadin, Y. , 2015, “ Modeling of Hydrogen Transport in Static and Rolling Contact,” Tribol. Trans., 58(2), pp. 260–273. [CrossRef]
Ferguson, B. L. , and Li, Z. , 2012, “ Stress and Deformation During Induction Hardening of Tubular Products,” 6th International Quenching and Control of Distortion Conference American Society for Metals, Chicago, IL, Sept. 9–13, pp. 34–44.
Hömberg, D. , Liu, Q. , Montalvo-Urquizo, J. , Nadolski, D. , Petzold, T. , Schmidt, A. , and Schulz, A. , 2016, “ Simulation of Multi-Frequency-Induction-Hardening Including Phase Transitions and Mechanical Effects,” Finite Elem. Anal. Des., 121, pp. 86–100. [CrossRef]
Dang Van, K. , and Maitournam, H. M. , 2002, “ On Some Recent Trends in Modeling of Contact Fatigue and Wear in Rail,” Wear, 253(1–2), pp. 219–227.
Van Lieshout, P. S. , den Besten, J. H. , and Kaminski, M. L. , 2017, “ Validation of the corrected Dang Van multiaxial fatigue criterion applied to turret bearings of FPSO offloading buoys,” Ships and Offshore Structures Journal (Taylor & Francis), 12(4), pp. 521–529.
Ciavarella, M. , Monno, F. , and Demelio, G. , 2006, “ On the Dang Van Fatigue Limit in Rolling Contact Fatigue,” Int. J. Fatigue, 28(8), pp. 852–863. [CrossRef]
Constantinescu, A. , Dang Van, K. , and Maitournam, H. M. , 2003, “ A Unified Approach for High and Low Cycle Fatigue Based on Shakedown Concept,” Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mat. Struct., 26(6), pp. 561–568.
Mobasher Moghaddama, S. , Bomidi, J. A. R. , Sadeghi, F. , Weinzapfel, N. , and Liebel, A. , 2014, “ Effect of Compressive Stresses on Torsional Fatigue,” Tribol. Int., 77(2014), pp. 196–200. [CrossRef]
Romanowicz, P. , 2017, “ Numerical Assessments of Fatigue Load Capacity of Cylindrical Cram Wheel Using Multiaxial High-Cycle Fatigue Criteria,” Arch. Appl. Mech., 87(10), pp. 1707–1726. [CrossRef]
Burn, D. J. , and Parry, D. J. S. C. , 1964, “ Effect of Large Hydrostatic Pressures on the Torsional Fatigue Strength of Two Steels,” J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 6(3), pp. 293–308. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Hardness profile of induction treatment from the surface to the core

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Typical profile residual stresses in axial, hoop, and radial directions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Hydrostatic residual stress in depth (MPa) and tensile residual stress peak of 200 MPa at depth of 1.0945 mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Schematic representation of the mesh at contact zone: (a) global view of flat cylinder A and elliptic cylinder B, (b) fine meshing in the spaces of elliptic center and flat cylinders in contact, and (c) zoom of contact zone showing the fine mesh of 0.08 mm of YZ plane

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Critical Dang Van distance and maximum shear stress under maximum loading conditions corresponding to a maximum loading of 580 N on a 48 HRC part: (a) distance to the Dang Van criterion along the A-A-axis below the contact point, (b) 2D map with contour lines representing the distance to Dang Van criterion below the surface contact, (c) shear stress along the axis along the A-A-axis below the contact point, and (d) 2D contours for shear stress on the plane orthogonal to the contact surface at which τmax = τf

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Evolution of stresses in the Dang Van diagram when applying critical loading conditions on homogeneous 38, 48, and 60 HRC cylinders with the residual stress gradient typical of induction hardening, corresponding to maximal loadings of 840 N, 1130 N, and 2345 N, respectively

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Residual stress distributions introduced in straight cylinder A according to the three directions (in MPa): (a) hoop stress, (b) axial stress, (c) radial stress, and (d) the correlation between the FEA simulation and an experiment measurement of axial residual stress

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Evolution of stresses in the Dang Van diagram when applying critical loading conditions on homogeneous 38, 48, and 60 HRC cylinders (without residual stress), corresponding to maximal loadings of 420 N, 580 N, and 1320 N, respectively

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Evolution of stresses in the Dang Van diagram when applying the critical loading condition on a multilayer cylinder with the residual stress gradient typical of induction hardening, corresponding to maximal loadings of 1420 N

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In