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Research Papers: Hydrodynamic Lubrication

Simulation of the Friction Coefficient of Paper-Based Wet Clutch With Wavy Separators

[+] Author and Article Information
Fumitaka Yoshizumi

Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.,
41-1 Yokomichi,
Nagakute 480-1192, Aichi, Japan
e-mail: fyoshi@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp

Hirofumi Tani

Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.,
41-1 Yokomichi,
Nagakute 480-1192, Aichi, Japan
e-mail: h-tani@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp

Shuzo Sanda

Research Center for High Efficiency Hydrogen
Engine & Engine Tribology,
Tokyo City University,
1-28-1 Tamazutsumi Setagaya-ku,
Tokyo 158-8557, Japan
e-mail: ssanda@tcu.ac.jp

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received April 18, 2018; final manuscript received July 4, 2018; published online August 13, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Stephen Boedo.

J. Tribol 141(1), 011702 (Aug 13, 2018) (13 pages) Paper No: TRIB-18-1161; doi: 10.1115/1.4040806 History: Received April 18, 2018; Revised July 04, 2018

To simulate the change rate of the friction coefficient μ with respect to the sliding speed V, that is, the μ-V slope, a model combining macroscale and microscale phenomena is proposed. The macroscale model obtains distributions of the fluid pressure and fiber contact pressure over the whole engagement face, and the microscale model obtains the friction coefficient of each fiber contact through a detailed model for single-protuberance fiber contact. An experiment was conducted to obtain the μ-V slope by changing the wave height of separator faces, and the simulation and experimental results were compared. The combined model is advantageous for representing experimental μ-V relationships at small and large wave heights in comparison with models using only the macroscale behavior. Both experimental and simulation results showed the μ-V slope becoming more negative with increasing wave height. The simulation results revealed possible causes for the negative slope. In the wavy separator, the fluid friction that contributes to the positive slope is difficult to achieve due to the large film thickness, and the load-sharing ratio of the fiber contact tends to decrease due to wedge action of the fluid film. These phenomena shift the μ-V slope to the negative.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Simulation model for the friction coefficient of a wet clutch with a wavy separator

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Fig. 2

Schematic of roughness of two faces

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Fig. 3

Flowchart of solution procedure

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Fig. 4

Schematic of apparatus for testing wet-friction plate

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Fig. 5

Typical time variation of the friction coefficient in the experiment: (a) without machined waves 2Zamp = 3 μm and (b) 2Zamp = 100 μm

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Fig. 6

Relationship between the sliding speed V and the friction coefficient μ: (a) without machined waves 2Zamp = 3 μm and (b) 2Zamp = 100 μm

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Fig. 7

Schematic of hydrodynamic effects in the micromodel and macromodel

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Fig. 8

Relationship between wave height 2Zamp and μ-V slope. Symbols represent averaged values. Experimental error bars represent the region of results for four friction plate specimens. Error bars for simulations represent the region of results for 16 cases (4 friction plate specimens × 4 phases).

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Fig. 9

Relationships between sliding speed V, fluid friction coefficient μfn, and fiber contact friction coefficient μcn: (a) without machined waves 2Zamp = 3 μm and (b) 2Zamp = 100 μm

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Fig. 10

Relationships between wave height 2Zamp and the slopes of ΔμfnV and ΔμcnV and relationship between 2Zamp and average film thickness h¯

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Fig. 11

Relationships between wave height 2Zamp and components for ΔμcnV

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Fig. 12

Distributions of fluid pressure poil and fiber contact pressure pcn for wave height of 2Zamp = 100 μm

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Fig. 13

Column element in the friction material

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Fig. 14

H̃ measured on one friction plate and Z̃ measured on the separator without machined waves

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Fig. 15

Probability density functions of roughness heights of friction material and separator surfaces

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Fig. 16

Functions of h¯T(h), Ac*(h), and D(h)

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