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Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Torsional Friction Behavior of Contact Interface Between PEEK and CoCrMo in Calf Serum

[+] Author and Article Information
Dongliang Liu, Dekun Zhang, Jian Wang, Xiao Zhang

School of Material Science and Engineering,
China University of Mining and Technology,
Xuzhou 221116, China

Qingliang Wang

School of Material Science and Engineering,
China University of Mining and Technology,
Xuzhou 221116, China
e-mail: wql889@cumt.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received November 18, 2017; final manuscript received July 5, 2018; published online August 24, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Noel Brunetiere.

J. Tribol 141(1), 011602 (Aug 24, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: TRIB-17-1442; doi: 10.1115/1.4040805 History: Received November 18, 2017; Revised July 05, 2018

Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and its composites are recognized as alternative bearing materials for use in arthroplasty because of their excellent mechanical properties. In this paper, torsional friction tests of PEEK against the CoCrMo alloy, simulating the contact mode between the prosthesis tibia and femur, were carried out under a 25% calf serum solution in a Leeds Prosim knee simulator. The torsional friction behavior of PEEK against the CoCrMo alloy was investigated under various normal loads (1000 N, 1600 N and 2200 N), torsional angular displacement amplitudes (±1 deg, ±3 deg, and ±5 deg), and the number of cycles (7500, 15,000, and 30,000). The torsional friction characteristics and damage mechanism are discussed. The results show that PEEK exhibited low friction coefficient under the different conditions. With increases in the torsional angle and normal load, three types of torque/angular displacement amplitude (Tθ) curves (i.e., linear, parallelogram, and elliptical loops) were observed and analyzed during the process of torsional friction. With the increase of the torsional angle, the coefficient of friction decreases. And the contact states change from the partial slip regime to the slip regime. The greater the torsional angle displacement, the more severe the damage to the PEEK surface. With an increase in the normal load, the wear scars increased. The wear depth is deepened and the width is widened, and the wear gradually becomes serious with an increase in the load. The small load is more likely to cause damage to the central area of PEEK, and the larger load causes more serious damage to the marginal region. The central and marginal regions of the PEEK sample have different wear characteristics. The worn surfaces of the central regions were characterized by convex ridges resulting from plastic deformation, while curved ploughs and fatigue peeling appeared in the marginal region. The wear mechanism of PEEK in the central region is plastic deformation, while fatigue wear and abrasive wear mainly appeared in the marginal region.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Sample schematic of torsional friction test: (a) size of sample, (b), and (c) actual sample

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Fig. 2

The testing device: (a) photograph of the Leeds Prosim knee simulator and (b) a structural sketch (1—large cam, 2—small cam, 3—cantilever, 4—swinging arm, 5—sample, 6—servo motor, 7—fixture, 8—sample groove, and 9–sensor)

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Fig. 3

Torsional schematic diagram (a) and torsional angular displacement curve (b)

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Fig. 4

Friction coefficient curves under different test conditions: (a) different torsional angle displacements, where Fn = 1600 N and N = 15,000 and (b) different normal loads, where θ =±3 deg and N = 15,000

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Fig. 5

Average friction coefficient: (a) different torsional angle displacements, where Fn = 1600 N and N = 15,000 and (b) different normal loads, where θ =±3 deg and N = 15,000

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Fig. 6

T–θ curves under different torsional angle displacements, where Fn = 1600 N: (a) ±1 deg, (b) ±3 deg, and (c) ±5 deg

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Fig. 7

T–θ curves under different normal loads, where θ = ±3 deg: (a) 1000 N and (b) 2200 N

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Fig. 8

Optical morphologies of the PEEK wear scars under different torsional angle displacements, where Fn = 1600 N: ((a), (d)) ±1 deg, ((b), (e)) ±3 deg, and ((c), (f)) ±5 deg

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Fig. 9

Optical morphologies of the PEEK wear scars under different normal loads, where θ = ±3 deg: ((a), (d)) 1000 N, ((b), (e)) 1600 N, and ((c), (f)) 2200 N

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Fig. 10

Optical morphologies of the PEEK wear scars under different number of cycles, where Fn = 1600 N and θ = ±3 deg: ((a), (d)) 7500, ((b), (e)) 15,000, and ((c), (f)) 30,000

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Fig. 11

Optical morphologies of the CoCrMo wear scars under different torsional angle displacements, where Fn = 1600 N: ((a), (d)) ±1 deg, ((b), (e)) ±3 deg, and ((c), (f)) ±5 deg

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Fig. 12

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) morphologies of the PEEK worn surface of central region, Fn = 1600 N, θ = ±5 deg, N = 15,000: (a) most central region, (b) periphery of the central region, and ((c)–(f)) partial enlargement

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Fig. 13

SEM morphologies of the PEEK worn surface of marginal region, Fn = 1600 N, θ = ±5 deg, N = 15,000: (a) left marginal region, (b) right marginal region, and ((c)–(f)) partial enlargement

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Fig. 14

Surface profiles of the central region and marginal region of PEEK under different normal loads, where θ = 3 deg: ((a), (b)) 1000 N, ((c), (d)) 1600 N, and ((e), (f)) 2200 N

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Fig. 15

Three-dimensional morphologies of the PEEK worn surface after 30,000 cycles, where Fn = 1600 N and θ = ±3 deg: ((a), (c)) central region and ((b), (d)) marginal region

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Fig. 16

Schematic diagram of the wear scar of PEEK in the mixed fretting regime

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