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Research Papers: Friction and Wear

Development of Wear Mechanism Maps for Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Hybrid Composites Reinforced With Nano Zirconia and PTFE Under Dry Sliding Condition

[+] Author and Article Information
D. Amrishraj

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Pondicherry Engineering College,
Pillaichavadi 605014, Puducherry, India
e-mail: damrish@rediffmail.com

T. Senthilvelan

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Pondicherry Engineering College,
Pillaichavadi 605014, Puducherry, India
e-mail: senthilvelan@pec.edu

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received March 16, 2018; final manuscript received July 23, 2018; published online October 11, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Nuria Espallargas.

J. Tribol 141(2), 021602 (Oct 11, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: TRIB-18-1116; doi: 10.1115/1.4041019 History: Received March 16, 2018; Revised July 23, 2018

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer is cost-effective and also possesses high toughness and resistance to corrosive chemicals. However, pure ABS does not show significant wear resistance and also it has a high friction coefficient. Incorporation of a solid lubricant and nanofiller in a polymer matrix improves its tribological properties significantly. The addition of solid lubricant makes it suitable for application where self-lubrication is desirable (sliding bearings, gears). This paper deals with the study of tribological behavior of ABS hybrid composites reinforced with nano zirconia and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). ABS hybrid composites with varying proportions of nano zirconia and PTFE were prepared using melt blending. Dispersion of reinforcement in the polymer matrix has been studied with the help of transmission electron micrographs. Influence of reinforcements on the mechanical behavior is studied by tensile testing according to the ASTM standard. The tribological behavior of composites was determined in a pin-on-disk tribometer according to the ASTM G99 standard. Worn surfaces were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to identify the different types of wear and various wear mechanisms. Transfer film formation was studied by analyzing the counterbody surface. A wear mechanism map has been developed, which helps in identifying various wear mechanisms involved under given loading conditions. The results reveal that the addition of PTFE reduces the wear rate and coefficient of friction (COF) significantly. Nano zirconia effectively transfers the load, thereby improving wear resistance, and the addition of PTFE results in continuous transfer film formation thereby reducing the COF. Also from the wear map, it has been identified that abrasion, adhesion, plowing, plastic deformation, melting, and delamination are the dominant wear mechanisms involved.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Transmission electron microscope images of ((a) and (b)) ABSN3 at low and high magnifications and ((c) and (d)) ABSH4 at low and high magnifications

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Fig. 2

(a) Stress strain curve, and (b) tensile strength, (c) tensile modulus, and (d) strain of ABS composites

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Fig. 3

Fractured surfaces of tensile specimen of (a) ABS, (b) ABSN3, (c) ABSP2.5, and (d) ABSH2

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Fig. 4

Surface plot showing the influence of the process parameters on ((a) and (b)) wear rate and ((c) and (d)) COF

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Fig. 5

The variation of COF with time of (a) ABS and its composites at a sliding speed of 1.25 m/s and load of 30 N, (b) ABSH3 at a load of 30 N and sliding speed of 0.5 and 2 m/s, and (c) ABSN1.5 at a sliding speed of 1.25 m/s and load of 10 and 50N

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Fig. 6

Scanning electron microscope image of steel counterpart sliding against ((a) and (b)) ABSN1.5 and ((c) and (d)) ABSH3 at a load of 50 N and sliding velocity of 1.25 m/s, ((e) and (f)) ABS H3 at a load of 10 N and sliding velocity of 1.25 m/s ((g) and (h)) ABSH1 at a load of 50 N and sliding velocity of 2 m/s

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Fig. 7

Energy dispersive X-ray analysis of steel counterface of (a) ABSH3 at a load of 50 N and velocity of 1.25 m/s, (b) ABSH3 at a load of 10 N and velocity of 1.25 m/s, and (c) ABSN1.5 at a load of 50 N and velocity of 1.25 m/s

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Fig. 8

Scanning electron microscope images showing the worn surface of (a) ABS ((b) and (c)) ABSP2.5 ((d) and (e)) ABSN3 at a load of 30 N and sliding velocity of 1.25 m/s ((f) and (g)) ABSH1 at a load of 50 N and sliding velocity of 2 m/s (h) ABSH1 at a load of 10 N and velocity of 2 m/s (i) ABSP1.25 at load of 30 N and velocity of 0.5 m/s (j) ABSP1.25 at a load of 30 N and velocity of 2 m/s

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Fig. 9

Wear rate map showing variation of wear rate with (a) load and velocity and (b) zirconia and PTFE

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Fig. 10

Wear transition maps showing different wear regimes

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Fig. 11

Wear mechanism map based on load and sliding velocity showing different wear regimes

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Fig. 12

Wear mechanism map-based filler content showing different wear regimes

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