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Research Papers: Lubricants

Effect of Soybean Biodiesel Addition on Tribological Performance of Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel

[+] Author and Article Information
Salete Martins Alves

Federal University of Rio Grand do Norte,
Av. Sen. Salgado Filho,
Lagoa Nova, Natal/RN 59072-970, Brazil
e-mail: saletealves@ect.ufrn.br

Aline Cristina Mendes de Farias

Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte,
Av. Sen. Salgado Filho,
Lagoa Nova, Natal/RN 59072-970, Brazil
e-mail: alinecmfarias@yahoo.com

Valdicleide Silva Mello

Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte,
Av. Sen. Salgado Filho,
Lagoa Nova, Natal/RN 59072-970, Brazil
e-mail: valdkqi@hotmail.com

José J. Oliveira Junior

Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte,
Av. Sen. Salgado Filho,
Lagoa Nova, Natal/RN 59072-970, Brazil
e-mail: josemar@ect.ufrn.br

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received December 14, 2017; final manuscript received August 8, 2018; published online October 16, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Satish V. Kailas.

J. Tribol 141(2), 021803 (Oct 16, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: TRIB-17-1481; doi: 10.1115/1.4041207 History: Received December 14, 2017; Revised August 08, 2018

The purpose of this work was to study the influence of soybean biodiesel addition in ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) on its tribological behavior under low-amplitude reciprocating conditions, simulating the operation of a fuel injector system. The methodology was divided into three parts: the first was the fuel preparation and its physicochemical characterization, where were studied four fuels (diesel, soybean biodiesel, and mixtures of them).The following step was the evaluation of the fuel tribological properties, using the high-frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR) test. These tests were carried out by steel ball-on-disk lubricated contact, on which the friction coefficient of friction (COF), the film percentage, and the wear scar diameter (WSD) were measured, according to ASTM D6079-11. In the end, the analysis of the damages presented on the worn disk surfaces was characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Results showed that the addition of biodiesel to ULSD is an excellent option to restore the lubricating ability of this fuel. The biodiesel incorporation reduces the friction coefficient and improves the film formation. Besides, the evaluation of worn disk surfaces using SEM and AFM techniques showed that biodiesel avoids damages to surface through protective film formation and reduces the superficial roughness.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of HFRR tribometer

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Fig. 2

Wettability of the fluids: (a) surface tension and (b) contact angle measured on new steel disk

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Fig. 3

The COF as a function of biodiesel concentrations

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Fig. 4

Percentage of lubricant film formation as a function of biodiesel concentration

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Fig. 5

Lubricity of fuels based on WSD number

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Fig. 6

SEM image and EDS analysis of worn disk surfaces after HFRR test for B0

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Fig. 7

SEM image and EDS analysis of worn disk surfaces after HFRR test for B5

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Fig. 8

SEM image and EDS analysis of worn disk surfaces after HFRR test for B20

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Fig. 9

SEM image and EDS analysis of worn disk surfaces after HFRR test for B100

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Fig. 10

Raman spectra of worn surface lubricated with different fuels

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Fig. 11

AFM 3D images of disk surface after HFRR tests

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