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Research Papers: Lubricants

Anti-Galling Effects of α-Zirconium Phosphate Nanoparticles as Grease Additives

[+] Author and Article Information
Yan Chen

Department of Materials Science and
Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843
e-mail: yanchen876@tamu.edu

Xuezhen Wang

Department of Chemistry,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843
e-mail: xuezhenwang@tamu.edu

Abraham Clearfield

Department of Chemistry;
Department of Materials Science
and Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843
e-mail: clearfield@chem.tamu.edu

Hong Liang

Department of Mechanical Engineering;
Department of Materials Science
and Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77840
e-mail: hliang@tamu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received July 22, 2018; final manuscript received September 17, 2018; published online November 1, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Min Zou.

J. Tribol 141(3), 031801 (Nov 01, 2018) (6 pages) Paper No: TRIB-18-1288; doi: 10.1115/1.4041538 History: Received July 22, 2018; Revised September 17, 2018

Grease plays important roles in reducing frictional loss and providing protection of rubbing surfaces. In this research, we investigated the effects of α-zirconium phosphate nanoparticles as additives in grease on the galling behavior of a pair of steels (4130 against P530). The results showed that the addition of 0.5 wt% of nanoparticles in petroleum jelly could reduce the friction for 10% and the area being galled for 80%. In terms of particle sizes, the 1 μm sized particles have profound influence in galling reduction. This is due to the increased contribution of van der Waals forces in the stacked layers of those particles. Under shear, those particles are exfoliated, resulting in low friction and more surface coverage to protect surfaces from galling.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The cross section of galling testing specimens when loaded on the instrument. The inner and outer diameter of mating surfaces was 48 mm and 38 mm. The direction of applied load and torque is also shown.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a,b) The interferometer measurement of rough (a) and smooth (c) surfaces, scale bars' length is 100 μm, color bar unit μm. ((b),(d)) AFM height map of rough (b) and smooth (d) surfaces, scale bars' length is 2 μm, color bar unit nm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The morphology of nanoparticles generated by AFM data of α-ZrP nanoparticle of 200 nm (a), 500 nm (b), and 1 μm (c) size on glass substrate. The false color in those images shows the value of the phase contrast. (d)–(f) the profile of the nanoparticle of 200 nm, 500 nm, and 1 μm. The length of scale bars: (a) 100 nm, (b) 150 nm, and (c) 300 nm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) The load and torque reading from galling testing using petroleum jelly with or without nanoparticle additives and (b) the apparent coefficient of friction in the galling test calculated from the torque and load data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

The surface morphology of smooth ((a)–(d)) and rough ((e)–(h)) samples (rotatory part) after the galling test with or without nanoparticle additives. The black line indicates the surface profile of the centerline. The galling was reduced with increased nanoparticle size in petroleum jelly. Scale bar length is 100 μm. Unit of color bar is μm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The surface morphology of smooth ((a), (b)) and rough ((c), (d)) samples (rotatory part) after the galling test with or without nanoparticle additives. The black line indicates the surface profile of the centerline. Scale bar length is 100 μm. The unit of color bar is μm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Profile of surface from rough surface AFM height map with 200 nm (a), 500 nm (b), and 1000 nm (c) with nanoparticles (draw to scale) on it. (d) The mechanism of galling reduction: the existence of nanoparticle separated mating surfaces. Their weak van der Waals force is easy to break compared to metallic bonding, causing them to exfoliate under stress.

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