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Research Papers: Applications

Charged-Particle Emissions During Material Deformation, Failure and Tribological Interactions of Machining

[+] Author and Article Information
Jagadeesh Govindaraj

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Madras,
Chennai 600036, Tamil Nadu, India
e-mail: jagdeesh.g93@gmail.com

Sathyan Subbiah

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Madras,
Chennai 600036, Tamil Nadu, India
e-mail: sathyans@iitm.ac.in

Contributed by the Tribology Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY. Manuscript received May 9, 2018; final manuscript received October 1, 2018; published online November 1, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Bart Raeymaekers.

J. Tribol 141(3), 031101 (Nov 01, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: TRIB-18-1179; doi: 10.1115/1.4041670 History: Received May 09, 2018; Revised October 01, 2018

Charged particles are emitted when materials undergo tribological interactions, plastic deformation, and failure. In machining, plastic deformation and shearing of work piece material takes place continuously along with intense tool-chip rubbing contact interactions; hence, the emission of charged particles can be expected. In this work, an in-situ sensor has been developed to capture the emitted positive (positive ion) and negative (electron and negative ion) charged particles in real-time in an orthogonal machining process at atmospheric conditions without the use of coolant. The sensor consists of a Faraday plate, mounted on the flank face of the cutting tool, to collect the emitted ions and the intensity of emissions is measured with an electrometer. Positively and negatively charged particles are measured separately by providing suitable bias voltage supply to the Faraday plate. Ion emissions are measured during machining of three different work piece materials (mild steel, copper, and stainless steel) using a carbide cutting tool. The experimental results show a strong correlation between the emission intensity and the variation in machining parameters and material properties. Increasing material removal rate increases the intensity of charged particle emissions because of the increase in volume of material undergoing shear, fracture, and deformation. It is found that emission intensity is directly proportional to the resistivity and strength of workpiece material. Charged particles emission intensity is found to be sensitive to the machining conditions which enables the use of this sensor as an alternate method of condition monitoring.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Sources of charged particles emission in machining

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Fig. 2

Principle of charged particles emission intensity measurement at atmosphere

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Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of ion collector in cutting for emission intensity measurement

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Fig. 4

Schematic diagram for electrical connection and DAQ

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Fig. 5

Typical positively charged particles emission signal for machining of mild steel material at 25 m/min cutting speed and 10 μm uncut chip thickness

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Fig. 6

Typical negatively charged particles emission signal for machining of stainless steel at 25 m/min cutting speed and 10 μm uncut chip thickness

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Fig. 7

Signal comparison plot of PC particles emission for mild steel machined at various uncut chip thicknesses

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Fig. 8

NC particles emission signal comparison for stainless steel machined at various uncut chip thicknesses

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Fig. 9

Emission intensity comparison for various uncut chip thicknesses and materials: (a) PC particles and (b) NC particles

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Fig. 10

Schematic for charged particles emission for cutting of same material with two different uncut chip thicknesses while keeping all other parameters constant

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Fig. 11

Emission intensity comparison for various cutting speeds and materials: (a) PC particles and (b) NC particles

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Fig. 12

Schematic for charged particles emission for cutting of same material with two different cutting speeds while keeping all other parameters constant

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Fig. 13

NC particles emission signal comparison plot for various materials machined at 25 m/min and 20 μm uncut chip thickness

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Fig. 14

PC particles emission signal comparison plot for various materials machined at 25 m/min and 30 μm uncut chip thickness

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Fig. 15

Emission signal comparison of NC and PC particles for mild steel material machined at 25 m/min cutting speed and 20 μm uncut chip thickness

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Fig. 16

PC and NC particles emission intensity comparison for various cutting speeds: (a) copper and (b) mild steel

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Fig. 17

PC and NC particles emission intensity comparison for stainless steel tube machined at five different cutting speeds

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Fig. 18

Measured cutting and thrust force signal for machining of copper tube at 25 m/min cutting speed and 10 μm uncut chip thickness

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Fig. 19

Comparison of charged particles emission intensity and cutting forces for stainless steel tube machined at various uncut chip thicknesses at 25 m/min cutting speed: (a) PC particles and (b) NC particles

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Fig. 20

Comparison of charged particles emission intensity and cutting forces for mild steel tube machined at various cutting speeds at 10 μm uncut chip thickness: (a) PC particles and (b) NC particles

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Fig. 21

Typical chip disturbed NC particle emission signal

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Fig. 22

Chip disturbed positive charged particles emission signal

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Fig. 23

Schematic diagram for the Faraday plate sensor stand-off distance

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